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48 Cards in this Set

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What is air in the thorax called?
pneumothorax
When closing an intercostal approach to the thorax with sutures around the ribs, what should be avoided?
Intercostal vessels on caudal ribs
How is the vacuum of the pleural cavity regained when closing the thoracic wall?
Maximally inflate the lungs during last part of closure
What is the surgical opening of the thoracic cavity?
Thoracotomy
What do radiologists call the area representing the bifurcation of the trachea in radiographs?
Carina
What is the injection and aspiration of material into and from the trachea for lab work?
Transtracheal wash
What is the surgical opening of the trachea to the outside?
tracheostomy
Where is a good place for a tracheostomy and why?
Cranial neck, trachea covered only by strap muscles
What is pneumonia?
Inflammation of the lungs with consolidation
What is aspiration pneumonia?
swallowing foreign material into the lungs and subsequent pneumonia
Which lobe is the most common site for aspiration pneumonia?

What is the second most common lung lobe?
Middle right lung lobe (most dependent)

cranial right lung lobe
To which lung lobe will a light, inhaled foreign body (grass awn), which moves by air flow and not gravity, tend to go?
Rt. caudal lobe- straight shot
What is hyaline membrane disease?
Parturition before the lungs mature with insufficient surfactant produced
What is the listening to the lungs w/ a stethoscope?
Auscultation of the lungs
What is the surgeons pericardium?
sac opened to access epicardial covered heart
What is filling up of the pericardial sac with blood?
cardiac tamponade
What is done with the pericardium after open heart surgery?
Left unsutured or only loosely approximated
What is the difference between a congenital and a hereditary defect?
Congenital:present at birth, can be due to hereditary or environmental causes. Hereditary: passed on to offspring, may or may not be present at birth.
What is failure of the interventricular septum to close?
Interventricular septal defect (VSD)
What does PRAA stand for?
persistent right aortic arch
What parasite may reside in the right ventricle of the dog's heart?
Heartworms
What is inflammation of the heart muscle?
myocarditis
Where does blood back up into when the right heart is damaged?
Body (venae cavae-ascites, jugular pulse)
What is ascites? What causes it?
Fluid in the abdomen, caused by right heart failure
Where does blood back up into in left heart failure?
lungs
How does the olecrannon and the intercostal spaces relate when standing?
Olecrannon at the 5th intercostal space or 5th rib.
What is a memory aid for the heart valve's point of maximum intensity?
PaM345, rightAV:low 5th right
What are abnormal sound caused by blood flow turbulence?
Heart murmurs
What are 3 common locations of clinical blockage of the esophagus?
Thoracic inlet, base of heart, esophageal hiatus of diaphragm (start of esophagus)
Which side of the aorta does the thoracic esophagus normally cross?
Right side of the aortic arch
What structures constrict the esophagus in a persistent right aortic arch (PRAA)?
Aorta, ligamentum arteriosum, pulmonary trunk and base of the heart
Where is the intercostal space incised to open the thorax and why?
In center to avoid the vessels caudal to ribs
What vessels is of concern in midsternal thoracotomies?
Internal thoracic artery and vein
What is it called if the ductus arteriosus doesn't close after birth?
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Early in PDA, which direction is the shunt during systole? During diastole? Why?
To the right in both(aorta to pulmonary trunk)aorta has higher pressure
What type of murmur is heard with a PDA?
washing machine/machinery murmur/continuous murmur
What would happen if a reversed PDA was tied off?
Blow out lungs, pressue above left ventricle
What are the 3 bumps seen on a DV view of a dog with PDA?
MPA, left auricle and aorta
What is a common developmental defect of the atrial septum?
Atrial septal defect (ASD)
What results from rupture of the thoracic duct?
Chylothorax
What is the clinical significance of the line of pleural reflection?
Demarcates the pleural from the peritoneal cavity
What is thoracocentesis?
Thoracic puncture to withdraw fluid
What is pleurocentesis/thoracocentesis?
Surgical puncture of the thorax for drainage of fluid
Where is thoracocentesis done?
In the middle of the intercostal space just dorsal to the costochondral junction, craniodorsal to the diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection
How can the pleural cupula be clinically important?
Can open the pleural cavity with an incision near the thoracic inlet
What theoretically allows a unilateral pneumothorax or pyothorax to become bilateral?
fenestration (holes) in the mediastinum, common in the dog
How can infections of the neck migrate to the thorax?
Down the deep fascia to the endothoracic fascia
what is the normal blood pressure of the dog?
120/80