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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of anatomy
study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts.
Definition of physiology
study of the functions of living organisms and their parts
Definition of homeostasis
constancy of internal balance of body
Basic facts about body functions
1. survival is most important
a. depends on restoration of homeostasis
b. never ceasing activities
c. all functions are cell functions
d. body functions are related to age
Planes of body
1. superior & inferior: top of head & bottom of body
2. posterior & anterior: front and back or front coronal
3. transverse: top and bottom - body cut in half
4. midsaggital: left and right cut
5. medial: waist & up
6. lateral: below waist
7.
The smaller units of the body are:
1. cells
2. tissues
3. systems
Two major cavities are:
1. ventral: thoracic - heart & lungs
2. dorsal: brain & spinal
what are organ systems composed of:
two or more tissues types that together form one or more common functions. skin,stomach, eye & heart examples.
Integumentary system consists of:

functions:
skin,hair,nails,& sweat glands, subcutaneous tissue


protection, regulation of body temp, prevents water loss, produces vitamin D precursors,barrier to pathogens and chemicals
skeletal



functions:
bones, ligaments



supports body, protects internal organs, framework for muscles
muscular


functions:
muscles, tendons


moves skeleton, produces heat
nervous

functions:
brain, nerves, eyes, ears

interprets sensory info, regulates body functions such as movement by means of electro-chemical impulses
Endocrine


functions:
thyroid gland, pituitary gland, adrenal

regulates body functions by means of hormones, regulates metabolism, reproduction
circulatory or cardio

functions
heart,blood,arteries

transports oxygen and carbon dioxide between air and blood, nutrients, waste, immune response
lymphatic

functions
spleen,lymph nodes

returns tissue fluid to blood,destroys pathogens that enter body, combats disease
respiratory

functions
lungs,trachea,larynx

exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between air and blood
digestive

functions
stomach,colon,liver,mouth,esophagus,intestines

changes food to simple chemicals that can be absorbed & used by body
urinary

functions
kidneys,urinarybladder,urethra

removes waste products from circulatory system, regulates blood ph, ion balance
reproductive


functions
ovaries,uterus, testes,prostate gland

produces egg or sperm, provides site for embryo
Parts of a neuron
1. nucleus
2. axon hillock
3. axon
4. synapse
5. dendrites
6. myelin sheath
Nervous system does what?
Integrates
Transmits
communicates
axillary
armpit
brachial
upper arm
buccal
mouth
cardiac
heart
cervical
neck
cranial
head
cutaneous
skin
deltoid
shoulder
femoral
thigh
frontal
forehead
gastric
stomach
gluteal
buttocks
hepatic
liver
iliac
hip
inguinal
groin
lumbar
small of back
mammary
breasts
nasal
nose
occipital
back of head
orbital
eye
parietal
crown of head
patellar
knee cap
pectoral
chest
perineal
pelvic floor
plantar
sole of foot
popiteal
back of knee
pulmonary
lungs
renal
kidney
sacral
base of spine
temporal
side of head
umbilical
naval
volar
palm
Dorsal cavity
cranial & spine
ventral cavity
thoracic - heart & lungs
abdomen - stomach
superior
above or higher
inferior
below or lower
anterior
front
posterior
back
ventral
toward front
dorsal
toward back
medial
midline
lateral
away from midline
internal
within
external
outside
superficial
above/surface
deep
within
central
main part
peripheral
extending from main part
proximal
close to origin
distal
away from origin
parietal
wall of cavity
visceral
organ within cavity
Initial Interview guide:
where, when, why, what, how
Presenting information
1. how did client get there?
2. who referred?
3. why referred?
4. what is client's perception?
Medical Disabilities and limitations:
1. what are client's current disabilities
2. any medicatons?
3. involved in treatment?
4. further treatment plans
psychological disabilities & limitations
1. history of emotional or behavorial problems?
2. is psychiatric exam required?
vocational handicap
1. how does disability cause problem in getting job?
2. how does cause keeping job?
3. daily activities?
Vocational history and interests
1. clients expectations, past job history?
2. work habits?
education and training
1. educational history
2. outcome of previous training
3. attitude toward training
family living situation
1. family unit description
2. stableness
3. support
economic considerations
1. source of financial support
2. special sources
3. litigation
independent living
1. money management
2. self-care activities without assistance
3. care for children alone?
other involved agencies & persons
1. other agencies involved?
impressions
1. Counselors observations and impressions?
2. was a counseling relationship established?
to do
1. what requests for examinations be made?
2. what other things did counselor agree to do?
3. what is client expected to do?
Is a burn a progressive disease?
no
Classifications of burns:
1. first degree - superficial
2. second - partial thickness
3. third - full thickness
4. fourth
depth and % of body surface involved
First Degree


Sources
epidermis only, superficial
usually heal within two to three weeks.
thermal, sunburns
Second degree



sources
epidermis & dermis w/varying depths...histamine, capillaries are more permeable, fluid under tissue
same as first
Third Degree



sources
epidermis, dermis & all appendages, full thickness, slow healing, severe scarring, loss of normal rom
fire, flame or electrical
Fourth degree
damage to fat, muscle, or bone below level of skin and full thickness of skin also.
Greatest age group at risk for burns
20-30 years
Essay: Contractions:
scars, itching, eye injuries, loss of facial members, hair loss, cosmetic disfigurement, loss of mobility, shortening of tissues, ability to meet public, self-image, acceptance
Stratum corneum



stratum germinativum


Melanocytes

Melanin
prevents loss or entry of water
if unbroken, prevents entry of pathogens

continuous mitosis produces new cells to replace worn off ones
produce melanin on exposure to UV rays
protects living skin layers from further exposure to UV Rays
Areolar connective tissue


Adipose Tissue
connects skin to muscles, contains many WBC's to destroy pathogens
contains stored energy in the form of true fats
cushions bony prominences
insulation from cold
Papillary layer

Hair (follicles)


Nails

receptors

sebaceous glands

ceruminous glands

eccrine sweat glands

arterioles

cholesterol
contains capillries that nourish the stratum germinativum
eyelashes and nasal hair keep dust out of eyes and nose
scalp hair provides insulation from cold
protect ends of fingers and toes from mechanical injury
detect changes that are felt as the cutaneous senses: touch, heat, cold, pain
produce sebum, prevents dry skin and hair
produce cerumen, prevents drying of eardrum
produce water sweat that is evaporated by body heat to cool body
dilate in response to warmth to increase heat loss
constrict to cold
constrict under stress
converted to vitamin D on UV rays
Rules of Nines:
path of electrical current (the body is the conductor) 3rd degree usually is where blood flows
Standarized:
estimating surface area involved. the body divided into areas grossly = multiples of 9% of the body surface.
Common reasons
1. vascular disease
2. trauma
3. infection
4. tumor
5. congenital abnormalities
6. thermal, chemical, or electrical injury.
Types of surgical amputation:
1. joint - disarticulation
2. stump - closed amputation
3. toes or small bones of foot - minor amputation
4. wrist or ankle - major amputations
Complications:
1. ulceration of stump
2. amputation neuroma
3. phantom limb
4. hyperesthesia
functional limitations:
1. Upper
a. grasping
b. fingering
c. lifting
2. lower
a. balancing
b. climbing
c. walking
3. upper or lower
a. sudden jarring
b. environmental conditions
Vocational impediments:
1. Is person willing to use a prothesis?
2. what is condition of stump?
3. any other vascular complications?
4. driving aids?
Initial interview
1. diabetes?
2. vascular disease?
3. prothesis
4. condition of stump
5. length of stump
definition of cancer:
abnormal cell growth called tumors or neoplasms
definition of metasticized
cell becomes systemic and carried from blood to organs
Functional limitations
1. stamina
2. strength
3. lifting ability
4. climbing ability
5. walking endurance
6. tolerance to temp changes
Observations:
1. below normal weight?
2. signs of loss of stamina?
3. signs of treatment or surgery, hair loss, etc.
Initial Interview questions:
1. kind of cancer
2. recent changes
3. physician prognosis
4. modes of treatment
5. side effects of meds
6. current meds