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186 Cards in this Set

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1. In psychoanalysis, the primary purpose of interpretation is to
a. help the client find practical solutions to her problems
b. help strengthen the therapeutic alliance
c. gradually increase a client's insight into the reasons underlying current feelings and behaviors
d. defuse a client's resistance
c. increase the client's insight. Interpretation leads to catharsis (experience of the emotions that follow from repressed material), insight, and working through (assimilation of insights into the personality structure)
From a psychanalytic viewpoint, anxiety occurs when
a. defense mechanisms have not properly modulated intrapsychic excitation.
b. a person has difficulty coping with a life situation
c. a person experiences emotions which have previously been repressed
d. a person faces a difficult life transition
a. anxiety occurs when defense mechanisms fail to prevent an unaceptable unconscious impulse from beginning to break through into consciousness.
Which of the following is probably the best sign that a working alliance in psychotherapy has been established?
a. the patient starts coming early to sessions
b. the client refers others to the therapist
c. the client asks the therapist personal questions
d. the client thinks about problems outside therapy
D. A working alliance is a positive feeling toward the therapist that is motivated by a realistic wish to progress in therapy.
Which defense mechanism?
a. A man who is angry at his boss comes home and yells at his wife.
Which defense mechanism?

A preacher who has had a series of affairs with prostitutes is particularly vehement in his sermons about sexual immorality?
reaction formation - avoiding an anxiety-evoking urge by expressing its opposite
Which defense mechanism?
A policemen who has violently beaten a suspect claims he was merely following police procedure
what defense mechanism?

A woman who shoplifts categorizes her theft alphabetically
may represent someone with obsessive-compulsive traits
A major diff between Freudian and neo-Freudian therapists is that
NeoFreudians place a heaver emphasis on social and cultural determinants of personality
In Jungian therapy, a client who projects aspects of ther personal and collective unconscious onto the therapist would be displaying
a. transference
d. symbolic exchange
A. Jung believed that the unconscious includes both a personal and collective (or shared) component
Sullivan's concept of parataxic distortion is most similar to the Freudian notion of
a. resistance
b. catharsis
c. displacement
d. transference
D. According to Sullivan, parataxic distortions occur when an individual deals with others as if they were significant persons from her ealy life. This is similar to the Freudian notion of transference
From the perspective of ego-psychology, psychopathology results when the ego
a. becomes too autonomous
b. loses its autonomy
c. is damaged due to overwhelming life circumstances
B. Ego analysts, such as Anny Freud and Heinz Hartmann, healthy behavior is under the ego's conscious control, and pathology may result when the ego loses this control and its autonomy from the id.
Diagnosis in client-centered therapy is
a. considered essential in developing an effective client-therapist relationship
b. not considered until self-actualization is attained
c. discouraged, becasue it focuses attention on a particular disorder
d. emphasied at only the beg of tx...
Beck views depression as caused by:
automatic thoughts, logical errors, and dysfunctional schemata
Rational emotive therapy views maladaptive behavior as flowing from
irrational beliefs
Stimulus control is most effective it it is employed
at the beginning of a response chain
Memories retrieved under hypnosis can best be described as
distorted and unreliable
A psychologist contends that his patient's problems are caused by too many "should" and "musts" in her belief system. The psychologist is working within the theory of
a. Bandura
B. Wolpe
c. Ellis
D. Meichenbaum
C. Ellis
In the terminology of general systems theory, a disruption to the family's homeostasis is referred to as

a. negative feedback
b. positive feedback
c. calibration
d. restructuring
B. Encouraging changes that disrupt family homeostatis and deviate from the status quo is referred to as positie feedback. Negative feedback occurs when change is discouraged and homeostatis is maintained.
2. Double-bind communication occurs when
a. two messages from one source contradict each other
b. two messages from two sources contradict each other
c. two aspects of the same message contradict each other
d. two family members constantly disagree with each other
C. When two parts of the same communication contradict each other, it is referred to as a double-bind communication and causes frustration in the person receiving the message.
Extended family systems therapy is most concerned with
a. increasing differentiation of self
b. decreasing triangulation
c. decreasing emotional cutoff
d. analyzing genograms
A. Encouraging differentiation of self in all family members is the primary goal of extended family systems therapy. A lack of differentiation leads to triangulation, emotional cutoff, and other problems
f. A family system with diffuse boundaries is likely to be
a. rigid
b. healthy
c. disengaged
d. enmeshed
D. Diffuse or unclear boundaries lead to enmeshment in families, and autonomy becomes impossible. A disengaged family system is caused by rigid boundaries, and leads to isolation.
It is most important that the therapy group clients are matched on which of the following factors?
a. age
b. gender
c. income level
d. intelligence level
d. intelligence level
Which person would be most disruptive in group therapy?
a. a shy person
b. a sociopath
c. a person with low self-esteem
d. an elderly person
b. a sociopath
According to Yalom, if a therapist is criticized by the group for not disclosing personal information, the therapist should
a. interpret the behavior as resistance
b. consider it a normal stage in the develop of a group and ignore it
c. ask the group more questions about why they feel that way
d. exhibit more control
C.B is partially correct... transference is a normal stage in group develop,ent, hoever, it shouldn't be ignored. The only choice that allows for further investigation and management of transference is C
A disadvantage of conturrent participation in individual therapy and group therapy is that
b. the patient may save all his self-disclosures for individual therapy, leaving nothing for the group.
The setting of short-term goals is done during which of the following stages of crisis intervention?
a. formulation
b. implementation
c. termination
d. post-termination
B. implementation
The setting of short-term goals is done during which of the following stages of crisis intervention?
a. formulation
b. implementation
c. termination
d. post-termination
B. The setting of specific short-term goals is done during the second, or implementation stage
2. The goals of brief psychotherapy include
a. restore the patient to her previous level of functioning
b. address the patient's most severe symptoms
c. gain insight into the origins of the problems
d. all of the above
3. A solution-focused therapist would most likely
a. interpret any resistance as soon as possible
b. provide immediate symptom reduction
c. focus on the presenting problem
d. ask a miracle question
D. the miracle question helps patients shift from focusing on their problems to focusing on potential solutions
1. Which is true about the use of computerized interpretation of the MMPI?
a. It's a clinically unacceptable method of interpretation
b. it results in more accurate dx decisions than do the use of clinical interviews and the clinician's subjective impressions
c. its use should be substantiated by other data
d. it is now the only possible way to interpret the MMPI
2. The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory would not be a good predictor of
a. job success
b. job interest
c. job motivation
d. job choice
A. predicts factors related to interest, job choice, job motivation, etc. Not useful for predicting job performance or success
3. Which of the following is an example of a test developed on the basis of empirical criterion keying
a. a group of content experts in a part field choose items for a licensing exam
b. Items for a licensing exam are chosen on the basis of their proven ability to distinguish between competent and non-competent professionals
c. Items on a licensing exam are chosen on their basis of their correlation with items typically used on undergrad psych tests
d. Items on a licensing exam are chosen on the basis of their ability to confuse candidates and ensure that a profession remains small enough to keep fees for professions who develop the exam at an adequate leve.
B. When a test is developed on the basis of emprical criterion keying, a large pool of items is given to members of two or more populations, and the items that best distinguish among the populations are retained. Choice A describes content-based keying, which is how the psychology licensing exam is developed.
4. The use of the Rorschach is based on the underlying assumption that
a. ink-blots are particularly useful stimuli for tapping into the underlying psychological processes of examinees
b. one's verbal ability is accurately measured by the no of responses given to cards that contain ink-blots
c. responses to colorful stimuli are useful measure of a person's ability to express intense emotion
d. responses to vague or ambiguous stimuli are revealing of the examinee's underlying cognitive and personality processes
d. the projective hypothesis
In various reviews of therapy outcome, SMith and Glass have found that
a. patients undergoing therapy generally do better than patients not undergoing therapy
b. patients not undergoing therapy generally do better than patients undergoing therapy
c. patients undergoing therapy do about the same as those who do not
d. no consistent relationship exists
All other factors being equal, which of the following types of patients would most likely attain the least benefit from therapy?
a. older women
b. younger women
c. younger men
d. none of the above
d. no consistent relationship between either age or gender and therapy outcome
Which is the best predictor of positive therapy outcome?
a. experience of therapist
b. duration of therapy
c. theoretical orientation of therapist
d. quality of therapeutic relationship
d. therapeutic alliance
Of the following, which have beenfound to be the best predictors of therapy outcome?
a. client variables
b. tx variables
c. therapist variables
d. external variables
A. research suggests that, as a class, client factors such as intelligence, anxiety, ego strength, etc., are the best predictors of therapy outcome.
When you r conducting therapy with Hispanic-American individuals, you should remember that
a. they may assimilate at different rates within a family
b. then tend to terminate prematurely
c. they tend to display their emotions through their body
d. they prefer an unstructured therapy approach
a. they may assimilate (acculturate between family and culture) at different rates within a family
An Asian-American couple who define themselves as being very traditional come in for therapy. Research indicates that the most effective approach to working with these client is which of the following?
a. affective
b. structured and directive
c. active and non-structured
d. open and non-directove
B. structured and directive
3. Overall, research suggests that
a. AA clients benefit more from being in therapy with Caucasian therapists
b. AA benefit more from being in therapy with AA therapists
c. AA and Caucasian clients benefit equally well from therapy regardless of the race of the therapist
d. Caucasian clients benefit more from being in therapy with Caucasian therapists
C. Therapist-client racial similarity is not simplistically related to a positive therapy outcome
4. A counselor practicing from an emic perspective would
a. seek to understand the client's probs from the perspective of the client's cultural frame of reference
b. attempt to understand the client's prob in terms of objective and universal scientific principles
c. take a structured and direct approach to counseling
d. believe that clients and therapists should be ethnically matched.
A. emic - from the inside - as members of the client's own culture see her. Etic - from the outside (choice B)
According to Minority Idntity Development Model, an AA who expresses a pref for a Caucasian therapist is most likely at which stage of identity development?
a. resistance
b. immersion
c. conformity
d. dissonance
c. conformity
Which of the following models views racism as the ultimate conclusion of cultural development?
a. Minority Identity Developmen Model
b. nigrescence theory
c. White Racial Identity
d. none of the above?
d. In all three models, the progression from early stages of cultural development (which focuses on the role of facism) evolves into a positive and non-racist view of diff cultures. Nigrescence theory focuses on the cultural development of AA, The White Racial Identity Model focuses on Whites, and the Minority Identity Development Model is a more general model for different minority groups
1. Punishment is discouraged in reality therapy because
a. it reinforces the failure identity
b. it is easily ignored
c. focus is shifted from present to past
d. it is too diff to properly implement
A. shed the "filure identity" and adopt a "success identity"
2. Which of the following is the best example of a couble-bind communication?
a. A son crashes his father's car, and the father says, "way to go, champ."
b. A husband says to his wife, "I want you to go on this business trip with me," while his body lang and tone of voice suggests that he doesn't
c. A mother says to her son, "You're a good boy" and gives him a dollar
d. A man asks a woman for a date but stutters because he is very shy.
B. when two aspects of the same message contradict each other
3. Which of the following therapies sees maintenance of family homeostasis as a major problem?
a. extended family systems
b. structural
d. strategic
d. all of the above
D. all view the maintenance of family homeostasis as a problem to be addressed. One of the goals is to change the family's patterns of problematic behavior
4. According to Yalom, open conflict between coleaders of a therapy group os
a. never beneficial
b. always beneficial
c. beneficial to a group in its early stages
d. beneficial to a group in its later stages, when it can serve to illustrate to teh group how to resolve conflict in a rational manner.
d. cotherapists shouldn't disagree openly during the first feew meetings, when the group is not cohesive enough to rolerate any divisiveness in leadership. he believes that disagreement in the later stages may controbite by providing a model of dignified and tactful resolution of differences in opinion.
A couple seeks the help of a family therapist; their presenting complaint is that the husband has not been able to sustain an erection lately. If the family therapist based her intervention plan on the work of the hypnotherapist Milton Erickson, the therapist would most likely
a. suggest that the man not even think about having sex for awhile
A. the use of a paradoxical directive is to harness the energy of resistance in the service of change; if teh directive is resisted, the symptom is given up
6. The relationship between number of psychotherapy sessions and outcome treatment is
a. negatively accelerated
b. positively accelerated
c. large and positive
d. moderate and negative
a. Where a relationship has been found, most of the positive effects of duration occur during the early sessions. negatively accelerated - positive at first, lessens over time, but does not become negative
7. A client reports a dream in which he is in a cage being pursued by lions. The therapist has the patient act out the diff parts of the dream.

a. client-centered therapy
b. gestalt
c. ration-emotive
b. gestalt
Among the following therapies, the one that is least likely to involve an expert is
a. reality therapy
b. rational-emotive therapy
c. feminist therapy
d. psychoanalytic therapy
The inquiry stage of the Rorschach administration is used to
a. obtain the examinee's initial respones to the inkblots
b. help the examiner to score the responses
c. establish good test rapport
d. delve for deeper meaning
b. help the examiner to score the responses
10. One of the major manipulations employed in structural family therapy is to
a. establish ground rules and basic principles of operation for each sesion in advance
b. alternate between family and individual sessions
c. use a therapist-team and assign homework to the family
d. aim at unbalancing enmeshed alliances
D. Minuchin - founder of strucutral family therapy
According to current psychoanalytic theory, the ego mechanisms of defense function to
a. ward off anxiety
b. ward off guilt
c. keep unacceptable impulses and drives unconscious
d. keep theperson from acting out
From a Freudian perspective, which of the following defense mechanisms would be viewed as underlying paranoia?
a. displacement
b. projection
c. denial
d. reaction formation
13. The theorist who viewed unhealthy behavior as a response to basic anxiety in which the person, in relating to others, over-relies on movement toward others, movement away from others, or movement against others, is
a. fromm
b. sullivan
c. adler
d. horney
D. Horney proposed that certain parental behaviors (e.g., indifference, overprotection, rejection) cause a child to experience basic anxiety, or a feeling of helplessness and isolation in a hostile world. To defend against this anxiety, the child adopts certain modes of relating to others: movement toward others, movement against other, or movement away from others. The healthy individual integrates all three types of behavior, while the individual relies primarily on only one.
A family therapist working from the perspective of Bowenian family therapy would be likely to
a. view family dysfunction as being transmitted from generation to generation, and therefore work with an entire extended family in therapy
b. view familydysfunction as being transmitted from generation to generation, but work with only the most differentiated family members in therapy
c. view family dusfunction as being caused only by dysfunction in the meeediate family and work with the entire immediate family in therapy
b. view family dysfunction as being transmitted from gen to gem, but work with only the most differentiated family members in therapy
According to the theory that underlies gestalt therapy, introjection
a. involves accepting the values and beliefs of others without really understanding them
b. occurs when a person attributes the bx of others to oneself
d. occurs when a person internalizes mental images of significant others from childhood
a. involves accepting the values and beliefs of others without really understanding them
Which of the following is least likely to be part of feminist therapy?
a. development of a "special bond" between the client and the therapist
b. discussion of the socio-political context and its influence on women's problems
c. development of an egalitarian relationship with the client
A. In feminist therapy, the therapist attempts to "de-mystify" the therapeutic relationship, which is viewed as a relationship between peers of equal status.
Which of the following statements best describes the results of research comparing the effectiveness of mental health professionals and paraprotessionals?
a. professionals have been clearly shown to be more effective than paraprofessionals
b. in the tx of many problem domains, professionals and paraprotessionals are about equal in terms of effectiveness
b. in the tx of manh prob domains, professionals and paraprofessionals are about equal in terms of effectiveness
A couple seeks therapy because they cannot control their tendency to continually argue with each other. If the therapist is a strategic therapist, she would most likely
a. construct a genogram and explain to the couple how the symptom reflects mutigenerational transmission processes
d. instruct the couple to argue with each other for two hours every night between 8:00 and 10:00 pm
d. The goal of strategic therapy is to adopt any strategy that facilitates reduction of the presenting symptom. Often, this involves the use of paradoxical directives, or instructions to engage in the symptom. compliance with the directive would illustrate that the client has control over the symptom. If the client resists the directive, the symptom is given up.
Which of the following is not a difference between the MMPI-2 and the MMPI?
a. the MMPI-2 contains 15 new content scales that assist in the interpretation of the clinical scales
b. the MMPI-2 clinical scales were re-constructed so that they permit interpretation in terms of specific DSM diagnoses
c. A score of 65 or above on the MMPI-2 is considered to be clinically significant, whereas on the MMPI, the cutoff score was 70.
d. The MMPI-2 was developed on the basis of normative data that is more applicable to the population as a whole.
B. The mmpi-2 clinical scales reconstructed so that they permit interpretation in terms of specific DSM dx
A therapist who analyzes the client's "life script" and pattern of giving and receiving "strokes" is likely a(n)
a. ego analyst
b. gestalt therapist
d. transactional analyst
c. transactional analyst
Which of the following tests consists of scales which have the same name as DSM-IV diagnoses?
a. MMPI-2
b. CPI
c. Cattell's 16PF
D. Millon played a role in the development of DSM.
_______ refers to repeated behaviors, especially repeated criminal or delinquent behaviors
The use of traditional neuroleptics in the tx of Schizophrenia is most effective for which of the following symptoms:
a. bizarre delusions
b. avolition
c. cognitive deficits
d. flat affect
bizarre delusions
Some potential side effects of Propranolol (inderal) are
a. depression and bradycardia
b. amnia and tachycardia
c. tremor and tachycardia
d. anxiety and bradycardia
a. depression and bradycardia
Propranolol (Inderal) is a _____ which is often used to treat hypertension, migraine, and essential tremors.
slow heart rate is called:
Research has found all of the following to be true regarding aggressiveness in children and adolescents except:
a. aggressive youth are more likely than their peers to believe that aggressive behavior will have positive outcomes
b. aggressive youth have fewer behavioral responses to social situations than their peers
c. aggressive youth are more likely than their peers to base their interpretation of social interactions on cues that occurred at the beginning of the social interactions
d. aggressive youth are more likely than their peers to misinterpret others behaviors as intentionally hostile.
c. aggressive youth are more likely than their peers to base their interpretation of social interactions on cues that occurred at the beginning of the social interactions - - recency effect - more likely to focus on cures that occurred at the end of a social interaction than at the beginning
According to Piaget, centration is:
a. characteristic of the formal operational stage and is the belief that others are as concerned with a subject's behavior as the subject is
b. characteristic of the preoperational stage and involves focusing on one aspect of a situation while neglecting others
b. characteristic of the preoperational stage and involves focusing on one aspect of a situation while neglecting others
characteristic of the formal operational stage and is the belief that others are as concerned with a subject's behavior as the subject is?
imaginary audience
characteristic of the preoperational stage and is an inability to consider another's point of view?
characteristic of the concrete operational stage in which it is understood that two objects can remain equal according to a certain measure despite changes to their perceived form?
A "needs assessment" is used to
a. identify the worth of a job so that an equitable wage can be determined
b. determine if and what kind of training is needed in an organization
c. describe the requirements of a job
b. determine if and what kind of training is needed in an organization
____ is used to determine the relative worth of a job, or a job analysis
so that an equitable wge can be determined
_____ is used to describe the requirements of a job?
job analysis
In order to best reduce leniency bias, you would use:
a. peer ratings
d. forced-choice
d. forced choice
A rat is placed in a Skinner Box which has two levers. Pressing Lever 1 delivers a food pellet on a variable interval schedule on an average of every 30 seconds. Lever 2 also delivers a food pellet on a variable interval schedule, but on an average of every 2 minutes. We would expect the rat to press Lever 1 in what proportion of the total lever presses?
a. .4
b. .6
c. .8
c. .8 Since the reinforcement schedule of Lever 1 compared to Lever 2 is 4:1, Lever 1 would receive 4/5 (or 80%) of the total number of presses.
The ability to remember the first and last parts of a lecture, but not the middle part, would most likely be due to:
a. retroactive inhibiton
b. primacy and recency effects
c. method of loci
d. selective attention
b. primacy and recency effects
_____ occurs when a new experience interfers with the recall of an earlier one.
retroactive inhibition
_____ is a mnemonic device in which items are associated with mental images of places.
Method of loci
_____ involves focusing on one event while filtering out or ignoring irrelevant events.
selective attention
A therapist is most likely to exert which type of power over a client?
a. coercive
b. reward
c. legitimate
d. referent
d. referent
_____ is based on a person's attraction to or desire to be like the holder of power.
referent power
____ results from the holder's ability to punish others.
____ results from the holder's ability to reward others.
reward power
____ is based on the holder's valid authority, for ex, the police.
legitimate power
_____ is based on the belief that the power holder has special knowledge or expertise.
expert power
A person making a "fundamental attribution error" would:
a. overestimate the impact of the situation and underestimate dispositional factors in interpreting the behavior of others
b. underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate dispositional factors in interpreting the bx of others.
b. underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate dispositional factors in interpreting the bx of others
overestimates the impact of the situation and underestimates dispositional factors in interpreting one's own behavior?
actor-observer effect
overestimates the impact of the situation and underestimates dispositional factors in interpreting one's own failures and underestimates the impact of the situation and overestimates dispositional factors in interpreting one's own successes
self-serving bias
Studies on the heritability of intelligence has found a correlation among sibling of about
a. .10
b. .25
c. .50
d. .75
c. .50
Based on the WAIS standardization data, which of the following is true regarding the relationship between age and intelligence?
a. upon retesting, older adults improve more than younger adults
d. Performance IQ begins to decline at age 20, while Verbal IQ remains stable until age 70.
Performance IQ begins to decline at age 20, while Verbal IQ remains stable until age 70
A client suspects that she may have been sexually abused as a child, although she has no conscious recollection of the abuse. She asks her psychologist to use hypnosis to help her retrieve any repressed memories she may have of any abuse. The psycho should:
d. advise the patient that hypnosis may produce false recollections of abuse and is therefore inappropriate - they should also be informed that the use of hypnosis could jeopardize any future legal actions they might want to take
Prior to conducting a court-ordered evaluation of a minor, you:
a. must obtain informed consent from the minor
b. should discuss the purpose of the evaluation with the minor
d. should discuss the purpose of the evaluation with the minor
A study comparing the effectiveness of stress inoculation training, hypnosis, and EMDR on PTSD measures client's anxiety level prior to receiving tx and at 6 and 12 weeks after beginning tx. This design would be considered:
a. between-groups
b. within-subjects
c. mixed
d. counterbalanced
c. mixed - has at least one between-subjects iv and at least one repeated measures variable (or within-subjects variable). Since this study iscomparing the effects on three different groups of subjects )a between-subjects design) combined with the use of a repeated measures (within-subjects) design, it would be considered a mixed design.
____ is a technique used to control order effects in a repeated measures design, and involves administering the tx to the diff groups in a different order.
In order to compare the results from two or more different studies that measure the same concept but used different outcome measures, you would be most interested in the:
a. p-value
b. effect size
c. order effects
b. effect size -
The ____ also known as the alpha level, indicates the probability that the null hypothesis is false.
_____ are the effects of the order of tx administration in a repeated measures design.
order (or carryover) effects
If a job selection test has lower validity for Hispanics as compared to White or AA, you could say that ethnicity is acting as a:
a. confounding variable
b. criterion contaminator
c. discriminant variable
d. moderator variable
d. moderator variable - any variable whic moderates, or influences, the relationship between two other variables. If the validity of a job selection test is different for different ethnic groups (i.e., there is differential validity), then ethnicity would be considered a moderator ariable since it is influencing the relationship between the test (predictor) and actual job performance (the criterion).
A _____ is a variable in a research study which is not of interest to the researcher, but which exerts a systematic effect on the DV.
______ is the artificial inflation of validity which can occur when raters subjectively score ratees on a criterion measure after they have been informed how the ratees scored on the predictor.
criterion contamination
If, in a normally-shaped distribution, the mean is 100 and the standard error of measurement is 10, what would the 68% confidence interval be for an examinee who receives a score of 95?
a. 85 to 105
b. 90 to 100
c. 90 to 110
d. impossible to calculate
a. 85 to 105 - To calculate the 68% confidence interval, we simply add and subtract one standard error of measurement to the obtained score
The risk of suicide attempts is greatest for a:
a. 13yo female whose parents recently separated and who has an above-average i1
b. 16yo male whose recently separated and who has a below average iq
c. 14yo male who frequently argues with his parents and who has diabetes
d. 16yo female whose parents are divorced and whose performance in school is below average.
d.females attempt suicide 3x more often than males... among adolescents, suicidal bx increases with age. also related to separation and divorce, poor social skills, poor academic achievement, though not necessarily low iq
A man with Korsakoff's syndrome would most likely have difficulty remembering:
a. the name of someone he met 10 min ago
b. how to spell the word world backwards
c. the name of a high school friend
a. the name of someone he met 10 min ago - due to thiamine deficiency - impaired ability to learn new information (anterograde amnesia) or an inability to recall previously learned information (retrograde amnesia). the greatest impairment is for recent memories while remote memories remain relatively intact.
AFter reviewing the research on the effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation for patients with Schizo, one could conclude that the single best predictor of future employement is:
a. SES
b. level of education
c. symptom severity
d. previous job history
d. previous job hx
A 4yo child displays impariment in nonverbal social interactions and engages in repetitive and stereotyped bx; however, the child has a relatively normal cognitive development and language skills. This child would most likely be dx with:
a. Asperger's DO
b. Autistic DO
a. Asperger's DO
A tx approach that focuses on helping clients resolve their ambivalence about changing their behavioral patterns is:
a. cognitive-behavioral
b. motivational interviewing
c. conflict-resolution
d. solution-oriented
a. motivational interviewing
Tx developed by William Miller and is based on Prochaska dn DiClemente's trans-theoretical model of change which views change as a process that occurs in stages?
motivational interviewing
Increased awareness is the primary goal of:
Gestalt therapy
Damage to the hippocampus is most likely to result in deficits in which type of memory?
a. explicit
b. implicit
c. sensory
d. working
a. explicit - explicit memory is conscous recall of facts and events/memory consolidation/transfer of info from short-term to long-term
Damage to the medial temporal area of the brain would least likely cause deficits in:
a. semantic memory
b. short-term memory
c. spatial memory
d. episodic memory
b. short-term memory - the medial temporal area contains part of the temporal lobe and hippocampus
semantic memory: long/short term?
spatial memory: long/short term?
Which of the following statments is true regarding the relationship between environmental factors and the course of Bipolar Disorder?
Environmental factors are likely to have a greater impact during the early stages of the disorder
A person taking an MAO inhibitor must always avoid consuming all of the following, except:
a. beer and wine
b. cottage cheese
c. packaged soup
d. aged cheese
b. cottage cheese
Performance can be viewed as a function of:
a. motivation and interest
b. satisfaction and motivation
c. ability and satisfaction
d. ability and motivation
ability and motivation (P=f(A X M);
______ is more important than ______ for performance.
Ability; motivation
IN group therapy, which of the following situations is most likely to increase a given member's self-disclosure?
a. the group leader has made it clear that self-disclosure is expected
c. other members of the group have freely self-disclosed
c. other members of the group have freely self-disclosed
The phenomenon of being more likely to talk openly about ourselves after someone else opens up about herself is termed:
self-disclosure reciprocity
A behavior therapist would likely view anxiety as the result of:
a. classical conditioning, in which an aversive stimulus or negative life event served as an unconditioned stimulus
b. classical conditioining, in which an aversive stimulus or negative life event served as a conditioned stimulus
a. classical conditioning, in which an aversive stimulus or negativ elife event served as an unconditioned stimulus
Classical conditioning is associated with the acquisition of ______, whereas operant conditioning is associated with ______ responses.
involuntary; voluntary
Being stuck in an elevator
paired with elevators in general
Which would be the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus in an elevator phobia?
us - being stuck
cs - elevators in general
_______ conditioning is when _______ is negatively reinforced.
avoidance conditioning; avoidance response
In avoidance conditioning, the _____ of anxiety is acquired by classical conditioning.
the actual experience
_____ is the mechanism that underlies the avoidance behavior, not the anxiety itself.
negative reinforcement
Which of the following WAIS subtests should be used to assess attention span and short-term memory?
digit span
According to recent research studies, which of the following statements is most true regarding therapy with AA clients conducted by Caucasian therapists?
The effectiveness of therapy is related to a number of client and therapist variables, cush as the client's suspiciousness of Caucasians in geneeral and the therapist's own racial identity development
The WAIS _____ subtest measures reasoning ability and concentration.
the WAIS _____ subtest measures judgment and common sense.
The WAIS _)___ subtest measures nonverbal reasonong and interpretation of social situations.
picture arrangement
Research suggests that the impact of cultural differences can be lessened if the therapist attends to and raises ______ during the early stages of therapy.
racial issues
The area of the brain that regulates the sleep/wake cycle is the:
a. basal ganglia
b. thalamus
c. hypothalamus
d. limbic system
c. hypothalamus
The ______ contains the suprachiasmic nucleus (jSCN) which controls the circadian rhythms via the pineal gland.
The suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN) controls the _______ via the pineal gland.
circadian rhythms
The suprachiasmic nucleus controls the circadian thythms via the _____.
pineal gland
The ______ controls voluntary movement.
basal ganglia
The _______ is the central relay station.
The _______ includes the amygdala, septum, and hippocampus which mediate the emotional components of behavior.
limbic system
The limbic system, which includes the ______, ______, and ______ mediates the emotional components of behavior.
amygdala, septum, and hippocampus
The amygdala, septum, and hippocampus are part of the _____.
limbic system
A difference between tangentiality and circumstantiality is that:
in circumstantiality, the person is delayed in reaching the point, whereas in tangentiality, the person avoids reaching the point at all.
From the perspective of psychoanalytic theory, mania represents:
a defense against depression
All of the following are true of stuttering, except:
a. it is more common in males than females
b. it may be accompanied by motor movements such as lip tremors or eye blinks
c. onset is commonly around the age of 5, but frequently after the age of 10
d. onset is commonly around the age of 5 and rarely after the age of 10`
The onset of stuttering is usually between the ages of _____.
The peak age of stuttering is at the age of ___.
In ____% cases, onset of stuttering is before age ____.
98%; 10
Stuttering is _____ times more common in _____ than ____.
Holland's social type is most similar to which other one of his types?
a. artistic
b. investigative
c. realistic
d. conventional
a. artistic
From the perspective of humanistic schools of psychology, psychopathology would be seen as being due to:
a. man's irrational nature, which interferes with a disciplined course of bx to enhance personal growth
b. defenses that interfere with one's own natural tendency toward personal growth
b. defenses that interfere with one's own natural tendency toward personal growth
In psychoanalytic practice, transference is:
a. counteracted through direct interpretation of its use as a resistance
b. a sign that tx is having an effect and discussed as the patient is made conscious of it
c. a sign that tx is having an effect and discussed as the patient is made conscious of it
Psychoanalysis as a treatment rests on the work of interpreting _____ and _____.
transference and resistance
The goal of psychoanalysis is to replace the ______ with the _______ so that the patient can be made to see her conflicts as they are exemplified by her reactions in the analytic situation.
acting-out neurosis; transference neurosis
The ______ is something the psychoanalytic therapist attempts to engender by remaining neutral and letting the patient project her feelings toward past significant others onto the therapist.
transference neurosis
______ is a sighn that the analysis is having an effect.
If the patient cannot develop a _______, as is true of many severely disturbed individuals, psychoanalytic success will be limited.
true transference neurosis
All of the following statements are consistent with Minuchin's concept of enmeshed or disengaged families, except:
a. in an enmeshed family, parents may devote an excessive amount of attention to one symptomatic family member who serves as the "symptom bearer" for the entire family
b. enmeshed parents tend to be loving and considerate and do a lot for their children
c. in a disengaged family, excessive conflict prevents effective communication
d. in a disengaged family, parents may not notice when their children need support or guidance.
c. in a disengaged family, excessive conflict prevents effective communication
Discriminant and convergent validity are classified as examples of:
a. construct validity
b. content validity
c. face validity
d. concurrent validity
a. construct validity
If we correlate our test with another test that is supposed to measure the same thing, we'll expect the two to have a high correlation; if they do, the tests will be said to have _______.
convergent validity
If our test has a ____ correlation with other tests measuring something our test is NOT supposed to measure, it will be said to have _____ or _____ validity.
low; discriminant or divergent
______ and _______ validity are both types of construct validity.
convergent & divergent
Convergent and _____ validity are both types of ____ validity.
convergent; divergent; construct
Using the deviation IQ is preferred to using the ratio IQ because the deviation IQ:
is comparable across all ages because the standard deviations are the same for all ages
The _____ IQ was a simple formula used when mental test were first developed.
The _____ was a way of determining how the child's mental age differed from her chronological age.
ratio IQ
A problem with the ratio IQ is that:
IQ scores are not comparable across age groups
The ______ is related to the average score for each age group and the derived IQ is presented in terms of how far the score deviates from that average.
deviation IQ
In the analysis of the effects of two independent variables, multiple regression analysis is sometimes used as a substitute for the factorial ANOVA. One advantage of using multiple regression as opposed to a factorial ANOVA is that:
b. continuous or categorial data (as opposed to only categorical data) can be used to measure the independent variables in multiple regression.
One limitation of the ANOVA is the independent variables must be:
divided into categories
In multiple regression, the researcher has the choice of using _____ OR ______ data (e.g., score on a test)to measure the independent variables.
categories or continuous
Multiple regression can be used for _____ dependent variable as well as multiple independent variables.
one independent variable only
The strength of the conclusion that variables are causally related depends on the _____, not the statistical analysis.
research design
A child is reinforced for cleaning up her room and for doing homework. Reinforcement for the homework is stopped. One could predict that cleaning up will
a. increase and doing homework will decrease
b. decrease and doing homework will also decrease
a. increase and doing homework will decrease. - if reinforced for performing two different operants, and resinforcement for one of these behaviors stops, we tend to increase the rate of the remaining reinforced behavior.
In an indistrial setting, a machine would likely be better than a human in performing all of the rollowing tasks except:
a. exerting controlled force
b. recognizing stimuli as belonging to a general class
c. responding consistently to instructions or input
d. recognizing patterns that vary from situation to situation.
d. duh
In general, humans are better than machines at tasks that require _____.
The best example of an intrinsic reward system is:
a. a person working hard 8 hours/day in order to obtain respect and recognition from his superiors.
b. a hyperactive child placed on a token-reward system of reinforcement
c. studying hard to pass the psycho exam.
d. a boy collecting stamps
d. a boy collecting stamps
Problems occur when we take something that is _____ rewarding and provide ______ rewards for it.
intrisically; extrinsic
Turning play into work means:
Stop working for intrinsic rewards and attribute bx to the extrinsic reward.
A relatively common and potentially dangerous side effect of chlorpromazine, especially in the elderly is:
a. Huntington's Chorea
c. tardive dyskinesia
c. tardive dyskinesia
What's the other word for Thorazine?
chlorpromazine - an anti-psychotic
______ and ______ are associated with tardive dyskinesia.
anti-psychotics and neuroleptics
Patients over age ___ are higher risk of tardive dyskinesia.
Parkinsonian effects sometimes occur as a side effect of _____.
neuroleptics - though less common than dyskinesia
Parkinsonian effects are less commonly associated with ______ as compared to the other neuroleptics.