Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Multiple Baselines?
several baselines are used, but only one treatment is used- useful for examining treatment effects for different persons, behaviors, or settings.
Multiple Baseline Across Subjects
used when more than one person is targeted for change- baseline is different lengths for each person- treatment is presented to each person at a different time to demonstrate the functional relationship- Devries study
Multiple Baseline Across Behaviors
used when you have multiple behaviors that you want to change following a single treatment- single person with multiple behaviors- treatment is applied to each behavior one at a time with staggered baselines- Franco study
Multiple Baseline Across Settings
used when the behavior occurs in two or more settings- treatment is applied to one setting first and followed by the second setting- Dunlap study
Alternating Treatment Design
design in which the baseline and treatment are alternated on a rapid basis (baseline-treatment-baseline-treatment pattern)- AB or ABAB require longer baseline and treatment periods (urgent treatment)- large number of repeated trials to determine if a functional relationship exists
Changing Criterion Design
a criterion is some type of performance goal that is specified by the therapist (quantitative target)- criterion changes during the treatment after the target goal is met- Foxx and Rubinoff study
the process by which a behavior is strengthened by the immediate consequences that reliably follow its occurrence. It ALWAYS leads to an increase in behavior. There are two types; positive and negative
What are the four parts of reinforcement?
1.The occurrence/expression of a particular behavior followed by an immediate consequence
3.that results in the strengthening of the behavior
4.The behavior is more likely to occur again
Conditioned Reinforcer
a previously neutral stimulus that has been paired a number of times with an established reinforcer and consequently functions as a reinforcer itself- only has value because of the learned association it posses- often paired with unconditioned reinforcers. Ex. Money, attention, smiling
Unconditioned reinforcer-
a stimulus that is naturally reinforcing because the capacity of our behavior to be strengthened by the stimulus has survival value. No prior conditioning is necessary for an unconditioned reinforcer to be a reinforcer. Ex. Food, water, escape from extreme situations, and sexual contact
Positive Reinforcement
1.The occurrence of a behavior followed by the addition of a stimulus or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus
3.which results in the strengthening of the behavior
the stimulus that is presented or that appears after the behavior is called a positive reinforcer
Negative Reinforcement
1.The occurrence of a behavior followed by the removal of a stimulus or a decrease in the intensity of a stimulus
3.which results in the strengthening of the behavior
the stimulus that is removed or avoided after the behavior is called the aversive stimulus
Escape Learning
behavior that results in the termination of an aversive stimulus. The termination of the aversive stimulus negatively reinforces the behavior. Ex. Rat jumps to the left side of the chamber from the right side when shock is presented.
Avoidance Learning
a behavior that prevents an aversive event. The behavior is negatively reinforced by the avoidance of the aversive event. Ex. Rat avoids shock by jumping to the other side of the chamber when the tone is presented.
Token Economies
a special kind of reinforcement program that sues conditioned reinforcers. Tokens become what people want, so they work for them. Tokens can be “cashed” in to buy other valued things. Gordon Paul study. Started in mental health facilities, but also works well with children
FI- fixed interval
a schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after an interval of time has elapsed. The interval is the same each time- scallop- no responding after reinforcement, then gradually increases as time to reinforcement approaches
VI- variable interval
a schedule of reinforcement in which the first response that occurs after a specified time interval is reinforced. The time interval varies around an average value. Produces a steady and constant rate of reinforcement- no pauses or stops due to variability
VR- variable ratio
a schedule of reinforcement in which a specified number of responses is needed for the delivery of the reinforcer. The number of responses needed varies around an average number- leads to very high rate or responding because you never know when the reinforcer will be delivered- unpredictable-works well- slop machines- on average reinforcement occurs every 10 times
FR- fixed ratio
a schedule of reinforcement in which a specific number of responses must occur before the reinforcer is delivered. The number of responses needed for reinforcement does not change. There is a post reinforcement pause followed by a high number of responses
a procedure for decreasing a problem behavior by reinforcing a functionally equivalent alternative behavior (a competing behavior) to replace the problem behavior- case or Mrs. Williams- reinforce good behavior and do not reinforce negative behavior- most effective when the behavior that is desirable occurs at least some of the time- must have an effective reinforcer that will work for the person, and the reinforcement must occur each time the behavior occurs at the beginning- gradually reduce the reinforcement schedule to an intermittent/variable one to maintain the desirable behavior- building or programming for generalization
differential negative reinforcement of alternative behaviors- some behaviors are maintained by negative reinforcement- escape or avoidance to get us out of some aversive situation- (homework and head-banging)
differential reinforcement of other behavior- a procedure in which the reinforcer is delivered after intervals of time in which the problem behaviors does not occur. DRO involves reinforcing the absence of the problem behavior. Modification of DRA design- not as specific, can be any behavior- Knight and McKenzie (thumb-sucking)
a procedure in which a lower rate of a particular behavior is reinforced to decreases the rate of the behavior. Used when the goal is to decrease but not necessarily to eliminate a target behavior. Set a criterion that has a very low frequency- record baseline data on problem behavior to get a sense of frequency of the problem- used with aggressive behaviors primarily- reinforcement occurs only if the problem behavior is under that level- similar to a changing criterion design- Dietz and Repp (classroom interruptions)
How do we assess which reinforcers are most effective for persons?
Assess the individual- observe the client, as the client, present potential reinforcers, use reinforcer questionnaires. Individual differences must be considered