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81 Cards in this Set

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Beck's three levels of cognition
Automatic thoughts-spontaneous thoughts
schemata-core beliefs underlying assumptions
cognitive distortions- systematic errors in reasoning that form link between dysfunctional schemas and automatic thoughts
Beck
Artbitrary inferences

magnification-minimazation
drawing conclusions when there is no evidence to support it

perceiving something as more or less than it really is
selective abstractions


Overgeneralization
focusing on negative of situation


Drawing general conclusions based on a single incident
personalization

dichotomous thinking
attributing external events to oneself


all or nothing
Beck
Cognitive triad

Treatment
negative thoughts about self, world and future

1- monitor neg. automatic thoughts
2-recgonize relat. b/w cog., affect, beh.
3-examine evidence of automatic thoughts
4-subsitute reality based interpretations
5-identify alternate belief system
Beck

Cognitive techniques
eliciting thought
decatestrophizing
reatributting
redefining
RATIONAL EMOTIVE THERAPY (WHO AND WHAT)
Albert Ellis based on ABC Theory

A- people experience undesirable events
B-they have rational and irrational beliefs
C-they create appropriate emotional and behavioral consequences or inappropriate.... "MUSTERBATION)
BECK vs. RET
1- RET irrational thoughts--> maladaptive behavior,vs CT- thoughts are dysfunctional when interfere with cog. process (not nec. irrational)
2-RET is more behavioral
3-RET-directly challenge irrationality vs. CT-encouraged to tests beliefs
Self-Control Techniques
Self monitoring
Stimulus control -
-narrowing
-cue strengthening
-competing responses
stress inoculation training
good for aggressive and impulsive anger
1- cognition preparation
2- skills aquisition
hypnotherapy-three factors-

uses
absorption, dissociation, suggestibility

-dissociation, phobias, PTSD, habits

contraindicated- psychosis, paranoid, obsessive compulsions
psychodrama- 3 phases
-warm up-identify group theme
-action-problem dramatized
-sharing-after perf. therapists leads discussion
Biofeedback (2 types)
EMG (electromyopgrah)-measures relaxation and tension in muscle
Skin temp feedback-skin temp and blood flow (thermal handwarming0 headaches)
motivational interviewing-
-main obstacel
-goal
-5 principals
main obstacle- ambivalence
goal-resolve ambivalence, make decision, build commitment
5 principals-
1-empathy thru reflective listening, 2-discrepeancy b/w goal and current behavior
3-avoid argument
4-roll with resistance
5-support self efficacy for change
Transtheoretical model of change
1- precontemplation
2-contemplation
3-preparation
4-action
5-maintenance (maintained for 6 mo.)
"prescriptive matching"
prescriptive eclectic therapy- adjust therapeutic relationship to treatments of client by matching the theoretical approach and empirically supported guidelines
Eysenck
Therapy doesnt help--> only behavioral does
Major meta-analysis regarding Tx outcomes
average client better off than 80% of controls, 2500 patients, (.8 effect size),

ALL TREATMENTS CREATED EQUAL
Client variables
-intelligence
cooperation
motivation
socioeconomic
-personality
-expectation
Not important...
Gender and Age
Therapist variables
age-weak association
ethnicity, self disclosure, orientation, gender-NONE
emotional well being- modest
COMPETENCE-MOST IMPORTANT
Treatment variables
Therapeutic alliance- MOST IMPORTANT
type of Tx- best practices- most effective
duration- up to 26 sessions has a positive linear relationship
Effectiveness and age and gender of client
same with children and adults

-best with adolescent girls
Phase model of psychotherapy effectiveness (3 stage sequence of change)
1- re-moralization-focus on well being- improve hopelessness and desperation
2-remediation-symptom reduction (5-15 session)
3-rehabilitation- gradual improvement of various aspects of life functioning
Personality TEST-MOST WIDELY KNOWN
-age
MMPI-2-
-individual or group
-18 +
at least 8th grade education
(MMPI-A- (14 -18 yrs)
-empirical criterion key--> content analysis--> 4 scales
MMPI- Scales (10)
hypochondriasis- concern with bodily somatic
depression-helplessness
hysteria-awareness of problem
psychopathic deviant- respect for society
masculinity-femininity
paranoia-level of trust
psychathenia- neurotic, worry doubt
schizophrenia
hypomania
social introversion
MMPI-
Scoreing
scales scores and T scores
Pattern analysis- used for scoring

mean- 50, SD=10
>65- clinical significant
Validity scales for MMPI
cannot say
L, F, K
true
L Validity scale
Lie scale- detect deliberate lying-
high-->cant admit shortcomings
F validity scale
Frequency scale-test taking attitude
low-lack of psychopathology
high-deviant, antisocial
K Validity scale
Correction- defensiveness scale-indicated guardedness

high- doesnt review anything about conflict = FAKE GOOD --> Poor progress
MCMI-III
Millon Clinical multi-axal inventory-IV
175 T-F questions,
21 scales that correlate to the DSM
SCL-90
symptom checklist, self report, 15 pt. likert scale
Neu personality tests
Measures big 5 -
1-extraversion
2-agreeableness
3-openess to experiences
4- conscientiousness
5-neuroticism
3 special scores on the rorschac
contam- "butterflower"
deviant verb- incorrect word
inapp. logic- strained reasoning
Strong-Cambell Interest inventory- (SCII)
-assesses
-more valid for... than...
-Interest reported in three ways
assess personal interest and compares to norms.
-more valid for occupational choice and satisfaction than success
1-general occupational theme
2-basic interest scale (more spec.)
3-scores for main body of SCII
empirical criterion keying
Newly revised strong interest inventory
-how many categories
6 categories
1-general occupational
-2 basic interest scales
3-occupational scale
4-personal style
5-administrative indices
Kuder Vocational preference record
-how many ____ areas
-based on ______
kids in _____
-ipsative
indicates interest in 10 broad vocational areas, based on content validity, forced choice, "most-least preferred"
-kids in grades 6-12
-ipsative score-convey relative strength
Kuders occupational inventory
-scoring mething
-for _____
-how many scales- name them
more recent, empirical criterion key, for High School junior and seniors
4 scales-
1- occupational
2-college major
3-vocational interest
4-dependability
Halstead-Reitan Neurological test batteries
Separate measure of several things (lateral dominance, pscyhomotor function, sensory-perceptual func., speech language...)

11 Subtests, 4-5 hrs, >.60- brain pathology
The Luria-Nebraska Battery
296 items, 11 subscales to measure specific functions, supplemental scales used to predict severity, acuteness,
scores 0-2 (injured)
faster and more thorough than H-R
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test
-measures...
-scores correlate with ...
measures visual motor memory, skills, defecits
-copy phase and recall phase, scores correlate with intelligence up 10 yrs old
Benton Visual retention test
-used to identify....
-in ages...
used to identify brain damage in 8+
assess visual memory, visual motor skills, spatial perception, reproductive from memory one or more figures
Beery Developmental tests of visual motor integration
-ages
3-18 yrs old
Illinois test of psycholinguistic abilities-
2-10 yrs., individual test, assess channels, processing, levels
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
measure-
ages-
impaired performance with...
measure ability to shift cognitive strategies in response to feedback,
6.5-80 yrs
impaired performance- autism, malingering, schizophrenia, depression, (sensitive to frontal lobe damage)
Stroop color word test
measures cognitive felxibility and selective attention
-prepotent response- habitual response on favor of unusual one
Tower of London
-measures...
move disks 1x into specific configuration, measure higher order executive functioning
Mini mental status
measures...
for...
number of quesions
measure cog. functioning for older adults, 11 questions that assess-
-orientation, registration, attention, recall, language, visual construction
<23/24 out of 30 = impairment
Glasgow coma scale
assess...
rates...
lower score...
assess level of consciousness following brain injury
rate individual based on- eye opening, best motor response, best verbal response
score-from 3-15, lower- severe brain damage
Rancho scale of cognitive functioning
assess...
rates...
low score
high score
measure of cognitive recovery after brain injury
rates patient 1-10, 1-no response, 8-10-purposefull- appropriate
ETHICAL PRINCIPALS AND CODE OF CONDUCT
revised in...
goals...
Sua Sponte
2002,
goal- protect public
no anonymous complaints unless already public
Sua Sponte- committee can act on its own less than one year after - felony, malpractice, deliscensure, expulsions or suspension
Options of adjudication
Dismiss charges
sanction
formal charges
stipulated resignation
dismiss charges
-- no violation,
- trivial violation,
- insufficient evidence,
-educative letter
Sanctions- two sections
Reprimand no harm
-cease and desist,
-supervision requirement
-education training
Censure insignificant harm
-evaluation and Tx requirement
-probation
formal charges
significant harm, formal hearing
stipulated resignation
in leu of other action
Ethical practices
Three Parts
- _____ = ______ (x3)
INTRODUCTION AND APPLIABILITY = intent and scope
PREAMBLE and GENERAL PRINCIPALS= aspirations
ETHICAL STANDARDS (=enforceable rules)
Modifiers
are...
reasons for...
reasonable, appropriate, potentially
-allow for prof judgement
-eliminate injustice
-ensure applicability
-guard against rigidity
Preamble and General principals
aspirational goals- committed to working ethically
Gen. Princ-
-Beneficence and nomalifecense- help not hurt
-fidelity and responsibility- try to do pro bono work
-integrity-accurate, honest, science
justice- equal and fair
respect for ppl- rights and dignity
ETHICAL STANDARDS
(although sometimes beyond law you must meet it)
-Resolving- misuse of psychologist works
-conflict between law and ehtic
-conflict between ethic and organizational demands
-informal resolution and reporting of ethical violations
cooperating with ethics committee
improper complaints
unfair discrimination
Ethical standards - Competence II
boundaries of competence
in an emergency can provide
continue education
delegate employees-only what competent
can refuse case but 1-be fair, 2-refer client,3-must treat in an emergency
-if suspect personal problem is interfering- get consulation
Privacy
Right of individual to make decision about how much should be shared with others
Confidentiality
Standard of professional conduct
everything is confidential unless-
-patient waved rights
-identifying info is removed
3-breach is required or permitted by law (danger to self or others)
Confidentiality in
-quality assurance
-EAPS (employee)
quality assurance- find out why insurance needs info, use cover letter stating it is confidential and who can see it

EAPS- tell if employee kept appt., does or does not need tx
accept or reject recommendations
HIPPA
Health insurance portability and accountability act of 1996, must follow as of 2003
HIPPA

Protected health information is...
all identifying data
Subpoena
1-determine if valid and demands disclosure
2-contact client and discuss implications of providing info
3-if client consents- provide info, if not-try to negotiate request
4-if requesting party continues to demand info--seek guidance informally from court
times when informed consent is not necessary
-When there is little or no harm
-studies of normal educational practices or job or organizational effectiveness and no harm
ethics with animals
humane treatment (minimal pain and only of no alternative) , responsible tx
(care for and dispose of according to law)
ethics with publications
scientific integrity- cant fabricate data
publication credit-must be commensurate with psychologists contribution to project
insanity
legal terms referring to persons ability to differentiate between right and wrong at time of crime
3 elements of malpractice
-must have professional relationship
-must have been negligent
some harm must have occurred to client
most frequent ethicla dilema
confidentiality
4 types of managed care
HMO, PPO, IPA, EAP
HMO-Health Maintenance organization-
closed-can only get services from that HMO providers
cost containment- high, paid per capita
PPO-Preferred provided organization
-less restrictive, practitioners join panels or networks, more autonomous, must lower fees to join
IPA-independent practitioner association
- independant group of practitioners join contract with an HMO to provide specific services within facility
EAP-employee assistance program
manager provides minimal intervention , refers client to provider for brief therapy
Federal Hmo legislation
requires 20 individual sessions/ yr.
utilization review
cost containment, require treatment plan and discharge goals
quality assurance
assesses availability, adequacy, appropriateness of health care resources and activities through application of standards