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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ACTH stimulates the _______ to secret cortisol.
Adrenal corex
Sodium and postassium levels are regulated by the hormone _______.
Aldosterone
________ promotes water retention and salt resorption with potassium loss in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidney.
Aldosterone
A proteolytic enyzme secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidneys?
Renin
Renin acts on __________ to produce angiotensin I.
angiotensinogen
Type of Immunity:
-Individual produces antibody
-Follows Immunization or Infection
-Memory (lasting)
ACTIVE

-Rubella immunization
TYpe of Immunity:
-Antibody transferred to individual
-Non Memory (temporary)
PASSIVE

-Neonatal-syphilitic IgG antibody titers
ADAPTIVE vs. NATURAL

Specific
Memory

Examples:
-B cells (antibodies)
-T cells (cytokines)
ADAPTIVE (Acquired)
ADAPTIVE vs. NATURAL

Non-specific
No memory

Examples:
-Exogenous (skin)
-Endogenous (stomach acid)
-Phagocytosis (PMNs)
-Natural Killer cells
Natural (Innate)
CELLULAR vs. HUMORAL

-B cell/Antibody
-Defence Against bacterial infections
-Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxcity
Humoral Acquired Immunity
CELLULAR vs. HUMORAL

-T cell/Lymhokines
-Defense against viral/fungal infections
-delayed hypersensitivity rxns (transplant rejections)
Cellular Acquired Immunity
Immunity associated with Viral infections:
Cellular
Immunity associated with bacterial infections:
humoral
Classes of immunoglobulins based on _____ chains.
Heavy
-largest antibody (pentamer)
-fixes complement best
-prominent in early immune response
IgM
-predominant antibody in body secretions
-primary defense against local infections at mucosal surface
-2 subclasses
IgA
Serum IgA is a ______
monomer
Secretory IgA is a _______
dimer
Unknown function
Present on B cell surface
IgD
Allergy
Triggers release of histamines from mast cells
IgE
nonsmokers generally have carboxyhemoglovin saturations ranging from___ to ____.
0.5-1.5%
Fatal carbon monoxide poisoning is associated with carboxyhemoglovin saturations of more than ____.
60%

Acute symptoms appear at 20% saturation
Cigarette smokers exhibit levels of ____ to ____ carboxyhemoglobin.
8-9%
Tests (2) useful in determining isopropanol exposure?
Serum osmolality
Urine Acetone
____,____, and ____ are collectively referred to as opiates.
Morphine, codeine, and heroin
Lead poisoning results in the formation and accumulation of _____ ________.
Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP)
Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels are useful as screening method for exposure to _____.
Lead

FEP is the extraction producct of the zinc metabolite (zinc replacing the iron in the tetrapyrrole ring)
THe time required for a 50% decrease in serume drug concentration after absorption and distribution are complete.
Half-life

5-7 half-life periods for drug concentration to reach steady state
THe Trinder reaction or modification is used to detect _________.
Salicylate

colorimetric reaction with ferric ions
which of the following is another name for vitamin B12?
cyanocobalamin
vitamin B12 is absorbed in the GI tract by way of substance called ____ _____.
Intrinsic factor

binds specifically to bit B12 and carries it to the ileum for absorption
Deficiency of Vit B12 causes _________ ________.
megaloblastic anemia
Anemia caused b y deficiency of vitamin B12 b/c of lack of intrinsic factor
pernicious anemia
Which disorder is associated with thiamin deficiency?
Beriberi (Vit B1)

also Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

affects nervous and cardiovascular systems

chronic alcoholics and elderly
WHich vitamin is a constituent of two redox coenzymes?
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

FMN (flavin mononucleotide)
FAD (flavin-adenine dinucleotide)
A deficiency of _____ leads to increase clotting time and may result in hemorrhagic disease in infancy?
Menaquinone (Vit. K)

-synthesized by bacteria in intestinal flora (newborns do not have well developed flora)

required for synthesis of prothrombin by liver