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45 Cards in this Set

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What did Hans Eysenck's 1952 study show?
Eysenck showed that more patients improved without therapy than with therapy. 72% of those with similar problems improved without therapy, while 66% of patients in eclectic therapy and 44% in psychoanalytic therapy improved.
Alloplastic intervention
An intervention that focuses on changing oppressive sociocultural conditions in order to allieviate distress. Changes environmental conditions to alleviate distress.
What is a "crossed relationship" according to Helm's Interaction Model?
It is associated with the worst outcomes. Client and therapist have opposing racial attitudes about blacks and whites
Who first applied meta-analysis to psychological research?
Smith and Glass first applied meta-analysis to psychotherapy outcome studies.
William Glasser's Choice Theory
Therapy focuses on individual choices especially those related to acting and thinking.
What did Hans Eysenck's 1952 study show?
Eysenck showed that more patients improved without therapy than with therapy. 72% of those with similar problems improved without therapy, while 66% of patients in eclectic therapy and 44% in psychoanalytic therapy improved.
Alloplastic intervention
An intervention that focuses on changing oppressive sociocultural conditions in order to allieviate distress. Changes environmental conditions to alleviate distress.
What is a "crossed relationship" according to Helm's Interaction Model?
It is associated with the worst outcomes. Client and therapist have opposing racial attitudes about blacks and whites
Who first applied meta-analysis to psychological research?
Smith and Glass first applied meta-analysis to psychotherapy outcome studies.
William Glasser's Choice Theory
Therapy focuses on individual choices especially those related to acting and thinking.
In the Sue et al., study (1991) which looked at outpt outcomes what ethnic group had the best outcomes?
Hispanic Americans had the best outcomes followed by Anglos, Asian americans and african americans.
What techniques does social learning theory use?
Impact of reciprocal interactions are emphasized in this theory. Communication seen as an important interaction between family members. examining the way families solve problems. Behavioral techniques (contingency and contracting). Problem-solving and communication skills.
Has the Hypofrontality hypothesis been confirmed or not?
Hypofrontality hypothesis which states that lower blood flow in the anterior cortex of schizophrenics except during cogn tasks. This hypothesis has not been empirically supported.
Is family therapy contraindicated with hispanic families?
No. In fact it can be helpful because of the close family ties.
What percentage of clients show measurable improvement after one year of therapy?
Approx 75%
What is the relationship between therapy duration and outcomes?
More improvement is seen in the early sessoins of therapy than in the later sessions.
What is the most common problem reported by gay and lesbian adolescents?
Stimatization, isolation (social and emotional).
What characteristics are related to therapeutic outcome?
Intelligence has been associated with therapeutic outcome most consistnently. Other variables that have been associated with outcome: educational level, anxiety tolerance, attractiveness and client participation.
What has been associated with premature termination from group theraphy?
unrealistic expectations and unfavorable attitudes.

Prescreening and pregroup training may be helpful in selected.
A therapist who sees the client's problems through their own cultural filter and are unaware of the fact that they are viewing the patients problems through this filter are called?
Culturally Encapsulated
What is a blended bicultural behavior pattern in African Amer adolescents?
When African-
Amer adolescents view themselves as equally American and ethnic or as more American.
How do sex role sterotypes in black families differ from sterotypes in white families. How does this effect therapy?
In black families there is a de-emphasis on sex role sterotypes.
What must be kept in mind when working with elderly clients?
1. That there is more variability on biological and physical phenomenon between elderly clients than younger clients. Including intellectual and personality.
Def: Sexual predjudice
A term discussed by Herek (2000). He defined sexual predjudiceas neg attitudes based on sexual orientation whether the target is homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual. He suggested that this is a better term than homophobia.
Newer antipsychotic drugs are less likely to result in tardive dyskinesia. This is due to differences with regard to neurotransmitter receptor sites. Which neurotransmitter and what is the action?
Masand and Fredman conclude that the lower rates of tardive dyskinesia are NOT due to greater affinity for the 5-HT (2) receptors which has been proposed by some investigors but to lower affinity for D(2) receptors. Individuals with lower D2 receptor affinity are associated with a lower risk for tardive dyskinesia.
When does separation individuation begin according to Mahler?
Mahler distinguishes between 2 phases that contribute to the development of a unique sense of self:sybiosis and separation-individuation. The development of sense of self- is the result of the separation-individuation and begins at about 4-5 months of age. When a child is able to lean back and look at the environment.
Define “playing it cool” and “uncle Tom Syndrome
Both are reactions to long-term racial prejudice: survival mechanisms.

Playing it cool: instead of expressing feelings that may be unacceptable to whites and could lead to further harm and explotation.

Uncle Tom Syndrome: the use of passivity as a defense mechanism.
According to Sue and Sue which therapist worldview tand which client worldview are most likely to clash? Especially when the therapist is white.
Sue and Sue (1990) Describe the world view interms of locus of control and locus of responsibility . They conclude that an IC-ER worldview is likely to pose the most difficult problems for IC-IR white therapists bc the client is likely to challenge the therapists authority. View the therapist as part of the establishment that has oppressed minorities, be reluctant to self-disclose and prefer adopting an active role in the therapy process.
What did the Consumer Reports survey regarding psychotherapy find?
The consumer reports study generally supported the notion that therapy is effective and that the longer the therapy the better outcomes. The survey suggested that there is a dose dependent effect of therapy with a larger dose producing a more positive effect. Participants reported greater satisfaction the longer they were in therapy.
What did the Weisz et al.,1995 Meta analysis find?
There is some evidence that therapy may be more effective for adolescents than children. Experience of service provider interacts with age. When treatment is provided by a professional or student, adolescents do better but this may not be true when treatment is provided by a paraprofessional.
Define: Catharsis
As defined by Yalom catharsis occurs in a nonthreatening atmosphere. Feelings may be positive or negative and have never been expressed before. One of 11 curative factors.
Minority Identity Model
The MIM distinguishes between 5 stages. Conformity, dissonance, resistance, immersion, introspection, and syndergistic articulation, and awareness. The conformity stage is characterized by cultural conflict and confusion.
Describe the "Typology of Black client self- disclosure" as described by Ridley 1984
Four levels of paranoia
1. Intercultural nonparanoic disclosure
2. Functiojnal paranoic
3. Healthy cultural paranoic
4.Confluent paranoic
Df: Assimilation
given up her own ethnic culture and identifies with the larger dominant culture
Df: bicultural
an individual who has adopted both cultures. It can be alternating or blended. Ex. Someone from India that has anglo friends, dates anglo women but at home speaks hindi and practices cultural traditions with their family.
Df: Detouring
Tension between 2 members of the family (usually parents) are reduced through the attention paid to a 3rd member of the family. The attention can either be positive (overprotection) or negative (blamming the child-scapgoating)
In terms of the world views of locus of control and locus of responsibility what do Sue and Sue suggest that minority groups are increasingly likely to adopt?
Sue and Sue 1990 propose that minority group members are becoming increasingly aware of their own ethnic identity and the impact of racism on their lives and they are adopting a world view that reflects and internal locus of control and external locus of responsibility.
In Yalom's group therapy what are members likely to say are the most important factors?
interpersonal input
catharsis
cohesiveness
self-understanding
What would Freudian theory (psychoanalytic perspective) attribute a phobia to?
Manifestation of neurotic anxiety. A forbidden instinctual impulse. By expressing the impulse in an external symbolic form the person is able to avoid it more effectively.
What is a person’s stage of identity development determined by according to Atkinson, Morten, and Sue’s 1993 racial cultural identity development model?
It is determined by assessing his/her attitudes toward the minority and majority cultures

Each stage in this model is characterized by a different combination of attitudes toward one’s minority group, other minority groups, and majority group.
What are Helm's 6 stages of identity developmemt?
Helms model 6 stages of identity development
Contact
Disintegration,
Reintegration
Pseudo-independence
Immersion-emersion
Autonomy
In which stage of Helm's racial identity development model have white therapists been shown to be most effective in cross cultural counseling?
Autonomy stage: the higher the level of development the greater the effectiveness when working with clients from culturally diverse groups.
what are the stages of Troiden's 1988 homosexual identity development?
Sensitization
Confusion
Assumption
Integration
Emic approach
studies a culture on its own terms. It is considered culture specific.
What three conditions must be met for a claim of malpractice?
Have had a duty to the client

Therapist must have acted in a negligent or inproper manner.

Causal relationship between the therapists neglicence and the harm claimed by the client.