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67 Cards in this Set

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What is an antimicrobial agent?
A chemical that has a bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect on microbial plaque.
A substance that causes contraction or shrinkage of and arrests discharges
Astringent
What is a canula?
A tubular instrument placed into a cavity to introduce or drain a fluid
What is an embrasure?
V-shaped spillway space next to the contact area of adjacent teeth, narrowest at the contact and widening toward the facial, lingual and occlusal contacts
A substance contained in a product (such as a dentifrice) to retain moisture and prevent hardening upon exposure to air.
Humectant
Activity relating to motions of fluids or the forces that produce or affect such motions; opposite of hydrostatic
Hydrokinetic activity
What is hydrostatic?
Relating to the equilibrium of a liquid and the presure exerted by the liquid at rest
Having a uniform tonicity or tension; denoting solutions with the same osmotic pressure.
Isotonic
A flushing action using large quantities of water or liquid also called irrigation
Lavage
What is substantivity?
The ability of an agent to be bound to the pellicle and the tooth surface and to be released over an extended period of time with the retention of its potency
Process whereby the joint of action of separate agents is greater than the sum of their effects taken separately.
Synergism
What is synergistic effect?
Coordinated action; acting jointly. for example: one drug might enhance the effect of another drug.
Is the epithelium covering the col keratinized or not?
The epithelium covering the col is usually thin and nonkeratinzed.
What makes the col subject to harbor microorganisms?
Its concave shape.
What makes the col subject to harbor microorganisms?
Its concave shape.
Where is the incidence of gingivitis greater?
In the interdental tissues. Most gingival disease starts in the col areas.
Name some characteristics of the thin unwaxed floss.
Breaks easily, shreds, covers wider surfaces, may cause tissue damage, can be used as a calculus detector for the clinician.
When is dental floss most effective?
When interdental papillae are present and there has not been a loss of attachment with root surface exposure
Why is it recommended that you floss before you brush?
It enables flouride to reach the interproximal areas
When is dental floss most effective?
When interdental papillae are present and there has not been a loss of attachment with root surface exposure
Name some characteristics of the thin unwaxed floss.
Breaks easily, shreds, covers wider surfaces, may cause tissue damage, can be used as a calculus detector for the clinician.
How long shoud the floss thread be?
12 to 15 inches in length with the thumb and index finger. 1/2 inch between the finger tips.
Procedure for flossing?
Maxillary; floss on thumbs with fulcrum
mandibular; floss on index fingers
use a gentle sawing motion, no snapping, adapt in a "C" shape, use a shoeshine stroke.
Name the common location of floss cuts or clefts.
On the facial and lingual or palatal surfaces directly beside or in the middle of an interdental papilla
What are the causes for floss cuts
*Using too long a piece of floss
*snapping the floss through the contact area
*not curving the floss
*not using a rest to prevent undue pressure
What percentage of Americans floss?
10 to 20% floss
Name the other types of floss
Tufted, Yarn or Gauze
What are the indications to using the tufted floss.
For plaque removal from tooth surfaces adjacent to wide embrasuers where interdental papillae have been lost
What are the indications for using the knitting yarn
For tooth surfaces adjacent to wide proximal spaces, dental floss is too narrow and does not remove plaque efficiently
What are the indications for using gauze?
Wide spaces, endentulous areas, abutment teeth, denture supported by an implant
What are the indications for using interdental brushes?
Open embrasures, ortho, fixed prosthesis, implants, splints and space maintainers.
Concave areas where floss cannot reach
ClassIV furcations
True or false. Interdental brushes are used in the application of flouride, gel and or mouthrinse for the prevention of dental caries
True
what does irrigation used for?
it disrupts microbial colonization
what is the target of oral irrigators?
It targets loosely attached subgingival bacterial plaque
what happens when the pulsating jet of fluid is directed to the tooth?
Two zones of hydrokinetic activity is created.
1. impact zone where the irrigant makes initial contact
2. flushing zone where the irrigant is deflected from the tooth surface
which specialized tip is placed 2mm below the gingival margin?
The soft (pik pocket tip) rubber tip.
The tapered plastic tip (specialized tips) is to be placed where?
At the gingival margin
The specialized tip, metal or plastic canula is to be placed where?
Below the gingival margin (base of the pocket)
What does supragingival irrigation do?
~Removes loosely attached plaque
~Reduces gingivitis
~adding antimicrobial enhances reduction
What does subgingival irrigation do?
~Reduces microbial count
~Duration varies
~Fluid penetrates 70-80% of pocket depth
(Rinsing does not reach subgingival)
irrigation improves what?
GIngival index, bleeding on probing, and probing depths.
Name the advantages of hometherapy.
~Patient is cotherapist
~difficult access areas benefit
~Prosthetics, ortho, implants etc.
~ postponed surgery pt.
Name a contraindication for irrigation
A patient that has to be premed. contact the pts physician for advice.
~ periodontal abcess
~ulcerative lesions
Name some self-prepared mouthrinses
~Isotonic sodium chloride: saline
~Hypertonic sodium chloride: salt and water
~Sodium bicarbonate: baking soda and water
Name some common antimicrobial agents.
Hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine gluconate, essential oils, stannous flouride, sanguinarine, cetylpyridium
What is the most effective agent for reducing plaque and gingivitis?
Chlorhexidine. Lasts longer than listerine..12% solution. Alters bacterial wall, lysis occurs, cell is destroyed. approved by the ADA for gingivitis. alcohol content is 11.6%
Name the side effects of chlorhexidine.
Staining (brown)
reversable desquamation'
alteration of taste
increase of supragingival calculus
what are the clinical uses of chlorhexidine?
~preprocedural rinse
~decreases supragingival bacterial plaque and gingivitis
~short term adjunctive therapy after surgical treatment
~Tx of ANUG
~Suppresses strep M. prevents smooth surface caries.
Describe stannous fluride.
Antimicrobial action related to stannous (tin) ion.
Most often available in gel form (STOP, Gel-cam)
Low to moderate substantivity
Is stannous flouride approved by the ADA for antimicrobial?
No. Some is approved for anticaries and hypersensitivity
Long-term studies indicate 30-35% reduction i plaque and gingivitis. And has a high alcohol level
Phenolic compounds (essential oils) LIsterine
Name a prebrushing rinse.
Sodium benzoate. Studies show no beneficial effect in reducing gingivitis. effective as a mouthfreshner only
What are quarternary ammonium compounds?
Cetylpyridinium chloride: Studies show a 14 to 24% Reduction in bacterial plaque and gingivitis (scope, cepacol, clear choice)
Low substantivity, may reduce halitosis some,
Hydrogen peroxide
Anti-inflammatory properties decrease clinical signs of inflammation but bacterial pathogens may not be reduced.
~can lead to sponginess of gingiva
~demineralization of root surfaces due to acid that is formed
This agent has no therapeutic value but is useful in breath freshning and halitosis
Cholrine dioxide: oxidizing agent. very weak research
An antibacterial, noncationic agent that has been incorporated in dentifrices with zinc citrate or Gantrax
Triclosan: can be combined with flouride, shows significan reduction of bacterial plaque and gingivitis. ADA seal
Therapeutic mean in dental terms?
vehicle for transporting biologically active ingredients to the tooth and environment (flouride dentifrices inhibit tooth demineralization)
What are the basic ingredients in a dentifrice
1to 2% detergents: lower surface tension to loosen debris and stains, foaming, sodium lauryl sulfate(soap) may cause aphthous ulcers
Name the ingredients in a dentifrice
Cleaning and polishing agents 20to 40% Abrasives help remove stain, plaque and debris, gives luster to tooth surfaces, calcium carbonate, silica, calcium phosphate dihydrate
Basic ingredient in dentifrice
Humectant 20 to 40%; retains moisture to ensure chemically and physically stable product( glycerin, propylene glycol)
Basic ingredient in dentifrice
Binding agent: 1 to 2%
prevents separation in increasing consistency of mixture of liquid and solid ingredients. Sodium carrageenanm xanthan gum, sudium cargoxymethylcellulose
How much does flavoring and sweetening agents account for in dentifrices?
1 to 1.5%
Coloring agents account for what percent of dentifrices?
2to 3%. Final ingredient : preservatices prevent bacterial growth and prolong shelf-life. Methylparaben, trisodium phosphate
Name some desensitizing agents
Strontium chloride
potassium nitrate
sodium citrate
Tarter control agents
function by interfering with the calcium phosphate bond in the calculus matrix. Effective only on formation of supragingival calculus on enamel surfaces. Not considered therapeutic because calculus does not cause disease
Name the tarter control agents
Pyrophosphate system and the zinc system
Whitening agents
Several have low abrasive levels, cosmetic restorations, includes papain(citroxain), silica, and carbamide peroxide. May have the ADA seal