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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
why is observing the optic fundi important for assessment of cardio?
AV nicking or hypertension may be observed in the eye
what skin changes imply a connective tissue disorder?
loss of hair follicles and sweat glands
skin becomes dry and hairless
what 2 things will a blood gas test tell us?
metabolic and respiratory status
what is acus senilis?
a white rim seen around the periphery of the iris
what 3 places are bruits commonly found?
femorals
corotids
aorta (L2, right above the umbilicus)
what does the S1 heartsound represent?
closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves (starts systole)
what does the S2 heart sound represent?
closure of the pulmonic and aortic valves (ends systole)
what does the S3 heart sound represent?
caused by a filling sound early in diastole; passive filling of the ventricle
too much fluid overwhelming ventricular filling
what does the S4 heart sound represent?
caused by a filling sound late in diastole; active filling in diastole
due to stiffness of the ventricular wall
what pathology is S3 due to?
too much fluid overwhelming ventricular filling
what pathology is S4 due to?
a stiffening of the ventricular wall
what condition presents with pain similar to ischemia?
pericarditis
how is pericarditis distinguished from angina?
by sitting forawrd; angina is not relieved by positional change
what 3 things is pericarditis associated with?
viral syndrome
post infarction
post stenotomy
what state is often associated with pericarditis?
chronic inflammatory states such as RA
what will present with:
substernal chest pain
dyspnea at rest or with exertion
palpitations and near syncope/syncope
mitral valve prolapse
what is benign by presents very similar to angina?
mitral valve prolapse
what is most common in young thin females?
mitral valve prolapse
what are 3 physical findings of mitral valve prolapse?
classic mid-systolic click and murmur
resting tachycardia
pectus excavatum
what will present with:
severe dyspnea
sudden onset of unilateral chest pain
pain often worse with inspiration
pulmonary embolism
what are 3 physical findings of pulmonary embolism?
tachypenea
tachycardia
pleural rub
what is the hardest to differentiate from coronary artery disease?
esophageal spasm
what will present as:
substernal or epigastric pain usually after eating
pain radiating to shoulder, arm, or back
frequent association with reflux
esophageal spasm
what are 2 tests for esophageal spasm after a cardiac workup?
upper GI barrium swallow
esophageal manometry
what pain occurs at any place in the chest and is worse with motion or position?
musculoskeleatl pain
what will present with a sharp, stabbing pain in the lateral chest, worse with inspiration or cough, and have a history or virus and fever?
pleurisity
what will the CXR of pleurisity show?
effusion
what history is common in aortic dissection? (2)
atherosclerosis
hypertension
what will you find in BP of aortic dissection?
higher in right arm than left
which type of echo provides the best pictures?
transesophageal
what 2 things can an echo stress test detect?
ischemic myocardium and viable myocardium
how can you induce ischemia in a stress test? (4)
exercise
pacing
dobutamine infusion
vasodilator effusion
what may create a false negative in stress tests? (5)
women
poor exercise tolerance
nitrate therapy
beta-blocker therapy
antiarrhtyhmic meds
what structural things can you look for in a stress test? (7)
wall motion/thickness
chamber size
valvular structure
masses or thrombi in chambers
aortic root dissection
septal defects
pericardial effusion
what does a doppler echo test for?
motion of blood through the heart
what 5 clinical things can be seen with a doppler echo?
mumur assessment
detecting regurgitant lesions
detect/quantify shunts
quantify stenosis
quantify regurgitant volumes
what can augment a stress test?
nuclear imaging
what type of testing can assess the quantity of ischemia?
nuclear imaging
what type of testing is useful when the patient is unable to exercise?
nuclear imaging
what type of testing records all beats over a 24 hour period?
long term ambulatory (holter)
what type of testing is only useful if the problem occurs frequently?
holter monitoring
what type of testing records only when activated by the patient?
event monitoring
what type of testing is not useful for syncope because the patient must activate it?
event monitoring
what type of testing involves a device worn for 30 days?
continuous loop monitoring
what is the end-point goal of a stress test?
reach 85% of HR
what are you looking for on the EKG of a stress test?
ST segment depression of 1mm or more
what can cause a false positive on a stress test?
women
electrolyte imbalance
autonomic dystonia
respiratory variation
bundle branch block
hypertrophy
WPW
what type of test is useful for syncope?
continuous loop monitoring
what type of test can determine the degree of coronary calcification?
CT angiography
what type of test is not effective in determining flow limitations?
CT angiography
what type of test is able to identify ischemic or injured myocardium with contrast?
Cardiac MRI
what type of test is less effective in visualizing coronary vessel lesions now but will sooon surpass CTA in quality?
cardiac MRI