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123 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the primary neurotransmitter for the sympathetic nervous system?
epinephrine, norephrine or dopamine
what is the primary neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic nervous system?
acetylcholine
what effect on energy does the sympathetic nervous system have?
expending
what effect on energy does the parasympathetic nervous system have?
conserving
Are preganglionic fibers of symph nervous system short or long?
short
are preganglionic fibers of parasymph nervous system short or long
long
what affect does the sympathetic nervous system have on vitals, etc
inc HR, inc RR, dilated blood vessels to skeletal muscle, dilated bronchioles
whate affect does the parasympathetic nervous system have on vitals, etc
decreases HR and RR, constricts blood vessels to skeletal muscle and bronchioles.
Can a spinal reflex occur even if the spinal cord is completely severed
yes
what risk is assoc with a Class V patient?
grave
what Class would an obese 1yr old cat for declaw be
Class II
What pre anes test would you run for a 15 yr old Class IV
patient
Complete blood chemistry, CBC, EKG, UA
what percentage of the symp nervous system is made up by the vagus nerve
80%
a chemical messenger released by the synaptic endbulbs of the telodendra which passes nerve impulses to an adjacent structure
neurotransmitter
family of pre-anesthetics with minimal adverse effects on cardio or resp systems
benzodiazepines
pre-an class that decreases anxiety but can cause hypotension
phenothiazine derivatives
pre-an class that provides excellent analgesia
opioids
class of pre-an that blocks stimulation of the vagus nerve
anticholinergics
class of pre-an that provides heavy sedation and analgesia
neuroleptanalgesics
class of pre-ans that have a reversal available
thiazine derivatives and opioids
pre-an
causes bradychadia, 2nd degree heart block, hypotension
xylazine
pre-an
contraindicated if pre-existing tachycardia
atropine
pr-an with long lasting analgesic effect
buprenorphine
pre-an that reduces the seizure threshold
acepromazine
pre an that has anticonvulsant effect
diazepam
pre an that has antiarrhythmic affect
acepromazine
pre-an tranq contraindicated if pt is shocky, hypotensive or anemic
acepromazine
anticholinergic that doesnt cross placenta
glycopyrolate
where is stethoscope placed for cardiac auscultation in a bird
at the thoracic inlet or just below the keel with the steth head angled cranially
Is pulse oximetry useful in birds
yes
what does tail bobbing in birds indicate?
respiratory disease
how long should a small bird be fasted prior to sx
2-4 hours to decrease passive regurgitation
why are uncuffed endo tubes used in birds
because of inexpandible complete tracheal rings
why are birds able to vocalize while intubated
a sound producing syrinx distal to the ET
are rabbits and rodents fasted
no- do not vomit
small size, high metabolic rate
reccomended anticholinergic in rabbits
glycopyrolate
what do you use to intubate rabbits
canine otoscope, laryngoscope, introducer
why cant you use a pulse ox in small rodents
high reart rate, weak signal
why is it important to monitor body temp in small rodents during sx
tend to lose heat rapidly, ovreheat rapidly if provided with external heat source
how can you avoid body heat loss in rodents
shave small, avoid cold prep solutions, warm any parenteral solutions
what do you use for anesthetic recovery in small mammals
warm 80 degrees quiet recovery cage, no sawdust. Feed quickly
what is the preferred pre-an agent for rabbits
acepromazine
does using atropine as pre-an help to control/prevent seizures
no
pre-an and inj an agent that sensitizes the heart to arrhthmogenic effects of epinephrine
pre-ans=zylazine (thiazine derivative/alpah-2 adrenoreceptor agonist)
inj an= thiopental(barbiturate)
why is ket used with a tranq
because it causes rigidity: porr muscle relaxation
why is thiopental not used in sighthounds
lack of body fat causes drug to stay in blood longer
2 contraindications for the barbiturate family of induction agents
sighthounds(thiopental and pentobarbital)
acidoses, hypoproteinemia,
shock, hepatic disease, pediatric patient
what happens to reflexes when using cyclohexamines
catalepsy- reflexes present, jerky. sensitive to sound
does ket depress cardiac rate or function
no- it supports it
advantage/disadvantage of propoflo
ad= short acting, metabolized quickly
con= expensive, no preservative
what drugs good to induce patient in shock
ket/val
does propofol provide good analgesia
no
2 adverse effects of halothane
sensitized heart to epinephrine-arrhythmias.
respiratory depression
vasodilation-hypothermia
hypotension
bradycardia
of halothane or methoxyflurane- which better for patient with renal disease
halothane
mac=
minimum alveolar concentration
what do you need to use a non precision vaporizer
low vapor pressure
whatindicated rapid induction
low sulubility
what indicated potency
low mac
which gas anesthetic causes the greatest resp depression
methoxyflurane
is nitrous oxide used alone
no
1 contraindication to use of nitrous oxide
resp disease
diffusion hypoxia=
If nitrous oxide left in lungs will displace oxygen. Run O2 for a few min after turning an gas off
how often should anesthetized patient be checked
every 5 min
1 clinical sign seen in patient if o2 absorber exhausted-REBREATHER ONLY
tachyphnea, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, abnormal capnogram
how can you tell endo tube blocked
resistance felt when bagging
how can you prevent bag in semi closed rebreathing circuit from filling too fast
decrease oxygen flow rate
open pop off valve a little
why are geriatric patients at increased risk
decreased hepatic renal function
why are pediatric patients at increased risk
predisposed to hypoglycemia
how should you anesthetize a brachycephalic breed
torb- no ace
atropine- decreases vagal tone
pre-oxygenate 5 min
rapid induction with propoflo, intubate quickly
anesthetics safe for c-section
neuoroleptanalgesic and local,
mask with iso or sevo
if an animal has respiratory disease should you mask down
no
2 pre an or an drugs to avoid in animal with hepatic disease
ace
thiopental
is iso good for 15 yr old cat with chronic renal failure
yes
2 causes of animal being too light
lack of gas, lack of O2 flow
what are signs of too light
inc HR, RR, movement, respone to pain.
signs of too deep
low HR, RR, lack of reflexes
2 causes of pale mm
blood loss, prior anemia or sx
medetomidine, hypotension
causes of dyspnea and cyanosis during sx
kinked endo tube, resp disease,lack of O2 supply
what breeds tend to have tachypnea during anesthesia
toy, obese
2 drugs that cause tachycardia
atropine
glyco
2 causes of bradycardia
excessive anesthetic depth, medetomidine
2 causes of cardiac arrhythmia
excessive anesthetic depth, shock, hypotension, xylazine
what drugs treat cardiac arrhythmia
lidocaine
oxygen
safest way to anesthetize animal not fasted
IV incuction, quick intubation
maintain with iso, sevo
causes seizures
treats seizures
ace
diazepam
how would you diagnose and treat laryngospasm during recovery in a cat
noise on inspiration
Prevent with IV incuction
treat with corticosteroids
why is it difficult to assess anesthetic depth during a neuromuscular block
there is an absence of reflexes, jaw tone,
possibly respiration
what order are muscles affected in a neuromuscular block
facial and neck
limb tail and abdominal
intercostals and diaphragm
what is mintime and temp for steam autoclave once pressure reached
13 min at 121C/250F at 15psi
what is flash sterilization
uncovered instruments- 3 min at 131C/270F
how long are double wrapped muslin packs sterile for in closed cabinet
open cabinet
7 weeks

3 weeks
single wrapped muslin in open cabinet- sterile for?
2 days
most common gas used for chemical sterilization
ethylene oxide
difference between sterilization and disinfection
sterilization kills organisms and spores.Disinfection only kills vegetative organisms, not spores
why would a pack be unsterile
wet after sterile, tape broken or loose, date missing, illegible, outer wrap torn, dropped on floor
how long in cold sterile for
disinfection
sterilization
5-20 min

10 hrs- still not assured
what method of sterilization is used to sterilize fluids
filtration
what is ionizing radiation used for
gloves, plastic tubing, suture material
qualities of ideal wrap material
selective permeability
resistance to damage
flexibility
memory- lay flat when opened
suture flexibility
most to least
silk-braided polyesters- nylon and surgical gut-stainless steel
how is absorbable suture removed from the body
enzymatic degradation
phagocytosis
hydrolysis
what suture can be autoclaved
nylon and stainless steel
what are the natural absorbable sutures
braided or mono
gut-mono
what are synthetic absorbable sutures, braided or mono
Polyglycolic Acid (PGA) or Dexon- mono and braided
Polyglactin 910 (vicryl)-braided
PDS-mono
what are natural non absorb sutures- mono or braided
silk- braided or twisted
stainless steel-mono
what are synthetic non absorbables- braided or mono
nylon-both
prolene-mono
polyester-braided
is braided suture good for infected wounds
no
which has better knot security- braided or mono
braided
which is more reactive- synthetic multifilament or synthetic monofilament
synthetic multi
reactivity most to least
gut- synthetic multi- synthetic mono- metallic
where does somatic pain arise from
skin,SQ, muscles, bones and joints
what is a nocioceptor
a naked afferent nerve ending sensitive to a noxious stimulus or one that would become noxious if prolonged
opioid family drug that gives pain relief up to 12 hrs after IM inj
buprenorphine
most common side effect of NSAIDS
ulcers
lab changes assoc w/ pain/distress
Inc WBC, lymph, glucose, PCV, cortisol and catecholamines
what are physical changes in response to pain
Inc HR, BP, pale mm. Inc CRT, panting, trembling
reluctance to urinate
drug or family that inhibits
transduction of pain
transmission
modulation
perception
transduction-local, NSAIDS, opioids
transmission-local, A2 agonists (domitor)
modulation- epidural, opioids,cholinesterase inhibitors, A2agonists
perception= anesthetics, opioids, A2 agonists, benzodiazapines
Non pharmaceutical methods for pain control
nursing care, massage, cold or heat, physical therapy, accupuncture
windup is
build up of chemicical mediators during sx that the animal feels post op.
multi-modal analgesia is
balanced use of different methods, ie opioid and NSAID
what 3 layers are closed in a 3 layer closure
linea alba, subcutaneous, skin
other name for castration
orchiectomy
another name for celiotomy
laparatomy