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47 Cards in this Set

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_ means difficulty in swallowing.

-dyspepsia
-dysphagia
-vomiting
dysphagia
what are the 2 major types of dysphaghia?
mechanical and neurological
All of the following except what are mechanical causes of dysphagia?

-stricture
-carcinoma
-achalasia
-brown/kelly paterson/plummer syndrome
achalasia is loss of neurological function in the lower 1/3 of the esophagus which causes the LES to constrict.
All of the following except what are neurological causes of dysphagia?

-stroke
-motor neurone disease
-MS
-Stricture
-Parkinson's disease
-achalasia
stricture is a mechanical problem
you should exclude what problems before labeling a pt as having dysphagia?
local problems such as mouth ulcers, ill fitting dentures, etc
_ causes of dysphagia usually lead to progressive problems with solids greater than liquids.

-mechanical
-neurological
mechanical
dysphagia may lead to _.
aspiration pneumonia
_ causes of dysphagia usually lead to problems with liquids greater than solids.

-mechanical
-neurological
neurological
All of the following are GI causes of vomiting except which?

-pancreatitis
-peptic ulcer
-cholecystitis
-sepsis
-bowel obstruction
sepsis is a non GI cause of vomiting
__ that affects anxious people who c/o that they have a lump in their throat usually at the level of the larynx.

-esophagitis
-globus hystericus
-dysphagia
-dyspepsia
globus hystericus
how can you tell if a pt vomited up or refluxed up their gastric contents?
absence of retching is regurgitation
any pt with low blood pressure who looks clammy and unwell should initially trigger three important groups of causes in your mind, all except?

-cardiac
-septic
-pneumonia
-hemorrhage
pneumonia is not in the differential
_ is the vomiting of blood.

-hematochezia
-melena
-hematoemesis
hematoemesis
Name 4 causes of esophageal bleeding.
varices
esophagitis
mallory-weiss tear
cancer
Name 4 causes of stomach bleeding.
ulcer
erosions
varices
cancer
Name 2 causes of duodenal bleeding.
duodenal ulcer
duodenitis
_ is the fecal output from the anus follwoing a bleed from the upper GI tract. The stools look black and tarry and can occur because of bleeding anywhere from the esophagus down to the right side of the colon.

-hematemesis
-melena
-hematochezia
melena
bright red or coffee ground emesis is termed _?
hematoemesis
If a pt. reports repeated retching or vomiting before blood appears may suggest __.
mallory weiss tear
what does bismuth do to stool?
turns it black
Melena is due to bleeding in the _ or the _.
upper GI tract or right colon
With bleeding per rectum, if the patient has a painless bowel movement, what should you be thinking about?
hemorrhoids
A pt. c/o blood in the stool, but also c/o painful bowel movements, what should you be thinking about?
anal fissure, usually after constipation
the focal point of bilirubin metabolism is?

-liver
-gall bladder
-common bile duct
-hepatic duct
liver
Bilirubin is the breakdown product of _ and is modified in the _ before being excreted in the _.
hemoglobin, liver, bile
Painless, progressive jaundice is supposed to be the hallmark of __?
cancer of the head of the pancreas.
bilirubin deposited in the skin can cause ?
itching
The triad of jaundice, pain, and fever is aka?
charcot's triad, ascending cholangitis
_ causes means those agents that damage the liver cells, interfering with their functions.

-pre hepatic
-hepatic
-cholestatic
-post hepatic
hepatic
_ causes of jaundice are those that obstruct the normal flow of bile into the small intestine.

-pre hepatic
-hepatic
-cholestatic
-post hepatic
cholestatic
A stone in the common bile duct would be a _ cause of jaundice.

-intrahepatic
-extrahepatic
-hepatic
extrahepatic; an intrahepatic cause would be a disturbance within the intrahepatic ducts and the canaliculi
dull pain in the epigastrium and right hypochondriac region should make you think about?
hepatitis
sweating and rigors may suggest __ a condition where infection occurs in the bile ducts and ascends up the biliary tree.

-cholecystitis
-ascending cholecystitis
-hepatitis
ascending cholangitis
A sewer worker has a tendency to contract _ which can cause jaundice.

-hepatitis B
-hepatitis c
-leptospirosis
-hydatid disease
leptospirosis in sewer workers
hepatitis b and c-healthcare workers
hydatid disease-wales sheep
mucus in the diarrhea can indicate what condition?
inflammatory bowel disease
loose, pale, and floating stools are called?
steatorrhea
pt's with constipation can present with diarrhea, fecal soiling of underwear, or fecal incontinence is called?

-diarrhea
-spurious diarrhea
-explosive diarrhea
spurious diarrhea
steatorrhea suggests _ malabsorption.

-fat
-carbohydrate
-protein
fat
what is the MC cause of chronic liver disease?

-hepatitis
-alcohol
-chf
-portal hypertension
alcohol
chronic liver disease is liver disease that has lasted longer than _ months.

-3
-6
-9
-12
6 months
_ is white nails, caused by cirrhosis of the liver and nephrotic syndrome, it is a marker for low albumin.

koilonychia
leuconychia
spider nevi
palmer erythema
leuconychia
_ is a spoon shaped depression of the nail plate.

koilonychia
leuconychia
spider nevi
palmer erythema
koilonychia
__ means bleeding d/t low platelet count of unknown cause.

-ITP
-TTP
-hemolysis
-coumadin overdose
ITP
__ is associated with carbon dioxide retention in respiratory failure, but is sometimes called a liver flap.
flapping tremor/asterixis
_ are telangietasia and should blance with pressure.

-purpura
-spider nevi
spider nevi

purpura do not blanch
__ usually starts with thinkening of the palmar aponeurosis around the ring finger, which eventually leads to the ring finger curling in towards the palm.

-koilonychia
dupuytren's contracture
flapping tremor
dupuytren's contracture
A __ is a marker of liver failure.

-xanthelsma
-flapping tremor
-anemia
-spider nevi
flapping tremor