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26 Cards in this Set

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Intracellular fluids (ICF) are:
1. high in:
2. low in:
1. potassium and magnesium
2. sodium and chloride
Extracellular fluid (ECF) is divided into:
- plasma (intravascular) 25%
- interstitial 75%
- transcellular <1%
ECF is:
1. high in:
2. low in:
1. sodium and chloride
2. potassium and magnesium
Intravascular differs from ISF:
intravascular has higher protein content and transport function
Transcellular fluid includes:
- CSF
- GIT fluids
- bladder urine
- aqueous humor and joint fluid
ratio of ICF to ECF
55 : 45
ratio of ICF to functional ECF
55 : 27.5 (2 : 1)
60-40-20 rule of body weight:
60% water
40% ICF
20% ECF
semi-permeable membrane of intravascular compartment influenced by:
- hydrostatic pressure
- blood pressure
- blood volume
- colloidal pressure
isosmotic
two solutions have same number of dissolved particles, regardless of amount of water flowing between membrane barrier
isotonic
two solutions cause no water movement across membrane barrier, regardless of amount of particles on each side
Colligative Property
A characteristic to which all the molecules of a solution contribute, regardless of their individual composition or nature
Colligative Property examples:
- osmotic pressure
- boiling point elevation
- freezing point depression
- vapour-pressure depression
Calculated Osmolality equation:
2*Na (mmol/L) + urea (mmol/L) + glucose (mmol/L) = calculated osmolality (mOsm/kg)
Major cation and anion of ECF:
cation: sodium
anion: chloride
ICF electrolyte distribution
- highest total electrolyte concentration
- major cation: potassium
Body Water Deficit:
Isotonic
- water loss = sodium loss
- causes:
- vomiting/diarrhea
- hemorrhage
Body Water Deficit:
- Isotonic
- Diagnostic findings
- inc. urine SG
- inc. Hct
- inc. serum protein
- inc. urea
Body Water Deficit:
- Hypotonic
- water loss < sodium loss
- ECF hypotonic
- causes:
- renal loss
- excessive fluid replacement with hypotonic fluids
Body Water Deficit:
- Hypertonic
- water loss > sodium loss
- ECF hypertonic
- causes:
- impaired thirst regulation
- hyperglycemia
Body Water Excess:
- Isotonic
- water gain = sodium gain
- causes:
- overinfusion of normal saline
- fluid retention from renal dysfunction or cardiac disease
- chronic liver failure
Body Water Excess:
- Hyptonic
- water gain > sodium gain
- ECF hypotonic
- causes:
- too much water intake
Body Water Excess:
- Hypertonic
- water gain < sodium gain
- ECF hypertonic
- causes:
- excessive intake of salty foods/liquids/sea water
Fluid Balance
1. Osmolality Sensor
- specialized neurons in hypothalamus of brain
- inc. osmolality -> inc. thirst and ADH secretion -> inc. H2O intake & inc. H2O retention by kidneys -> dec. osmolality
Fluid Balance
2. Fluid Volume Sensor
- specialized kidney cells in juxtaglomerular apparatus
- dec. blood volume -> inc. renin secretion -> converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I -> ACE converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II -> stim. vasoconstriction (inc. BP) -> inc. aldosterone secretion -> inc. sodium retention in kidneys -> inc. H2O retention -> inc. blood volume
Fluid Balance
3. Myocardial atria cells
- inc. blood volume -> inc. ANP -> inc. sodium excretion followed by H2O excretion in kidneys