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32 Cards in this Set

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A, B, C, D, E, H CLIMATES
tropical, dry, meso, micro, polar, highland
BW, BS, BWk BWh
desert, steppe, midlatitude desert, low latitude hot desert
a, b, c
hot, warm and cool summers
f, w, s
no dry season, winter dry, summer dry
ET, EF, H
tundra, ice cap, highland
advection
Transport of an atmospheric property by the wind.
5 energy transfers by advection
hadley cells, midlatitude wave cyclones and anticyclones, upper troposphere rossby waves, ocean currents, local to regional scale winds
2 energy transfers by convection
thunderstorms, esp near ITCZ and tropical cyclones
temporal variability
year to year variability around average
trend
climate change towards something different
6 types of variability/change
regular (normal
periodic: regularity to flucuations
random
change in degree of variability
trend w/ periodic variability
step change: from one stable mean to another
length of glacials and interglacials
70k-120k glacials with 10k interglaicials
current interglacial is...
holocene epoch
younger dryas:
last gasp of ice age 11k-12k YA
recent history has ___ extreme climate than last
more, 500 million
warm earth has o18 where?
more in atmosphere and ice cores, less in oceans
cold earth has o18 where?
less in atmosphere and ice, more in oceans
9 sources of climatic data
1. ocean sediment
2. ancient soils
3. marine shorelines
4. ice cores
5. closed basin lakes
6. mtn glaciers
7. ice sheets
8. bog or lake sediments
9. tree rings
palynology
study of pollen
most important and other natural causes of climate variability
ENSO, volcanoes, solar activity,
normal walker circulation
rising air in W. pacific, sinking in east, trade winds and water moving west, upwelling off S. america
Tahiti-darwin is what for El nino?
negative
El nino, 5
1. monsoon breakdown
2. suppression of atl hurricanes
3. splitting of N. am jet stream
4. warm winter in N. US
5. break down of walker circ
4 causes of short term changes in global climate
1. variation in solar irradiance (output of sun)
2. Sunspot activity
3. atmospheric dust
4. human (fire, agriculture
3 things that affect insolence
distance from sun
transparency of atmosphere
energy given off by sun
3 changes in earth sun relationship
1. obliquity of orbit (angle of axis)
2. eccentricity of orbit
3. procession of equinoxes (Milankovitch cycles)
long term climate changers
1. earth sun relationship
2. dist of continents
3. variations in oceans
4. extraterrestrial impacts (can affect milankovitch cycles)
4 ways variations in oceans affect climate
1. creating relative elevation of land
2. heat storage
3. redistributing energy
4. atmosphere leads and ocean follows
sources of atmospheric CO2
decomposition
respiration
fossil fuels
sinks of CO2
vegetation
oceans
soil
why isn't GW a problem 2
1. negative feedback
2. benefits of high temps
3.
teleconnection
a correlation in atmoshpereic pressure across a large part of the earth, which helps to dictate