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378 Cards in this Set

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Puritans
Fled James and Laud: wanted religious utopia. (Saw themselves as last bastion of pure Christianity) Fearful of outsiders (incl. Pilgrims and Catholics); intolerant and isolated. NOT Pacifistic: English Civil War 1641 - 1660 and The Pequot War 1675 - 1676
New England Colonists
Life Expectance: 70 Men; 62 Women (previously skewed by including infants) Average family: 4 - 6 children. Little slavery (no need); Isolated Puritan communities. Climate and geography supported settlement by townships.
Third Amendment
Prohibits illegal quartering of troops in private homes
Article II Constitution
Deals w/Congress
Writ of Habeus corpus
Authorities must present evidence w/i 48 hours. Only Congress can suspend (President as a wartime act) Lincoln: Tennessee and Maryland
Dutch Colonizers
Fought with Natives; exploitive fur trade. Bloody war w/Algonquins 1643. They were small in #: recruited other nationalities to settle. New Netherland = diverse = infighting. Patroon System and climate harsh: few takers
North American Natives
Diversified economies (except Great Plains: hunters only) Oral traditions; nature sacred. Went to war over territory (some tribes more warlike than others)
Spanish Colonizers
Ideal colonial: young unmarried male seeking riches and return to Spain. 16th Century: 1500 conquistadors / year. Exploited natives; then African slaves (Charles V & Las Casas). Established large plantations: adeletandos. Introduced horses.
First Amendment
Free speech; religion; Right to Assemble and petition
Sixth Amendment
Deals w/Rights of the Accused (speedy trial). Re-enforces DOI. Reflects fears of Anti-Federalists
Impeachment
Article I; Sec.2: must start in the House. Sec.3: moves to Senate (presided over by Chief Justice). If guilty: removed. 1867: Andrew Johnson escaped removal by one vote. Nixon: neither impeached nor removed. Clinton: impeached: not removed.
XYZ Affair
1796 President John Adams. French were seizing U.S. ships and cargo. 'X,Y&Z' (anonymous sources) told Adams that French PM Talleyrand would accept a 250K bribe / 12 million $ interest-free loan to 'negotiate' the issues'. Adams leaked it to the press who ran with it. Adams considered it his greatest accomplishment. Saved U.S. honor.
Jay Treaty
John Jay: appointed by G. Washington in 1794 as Special Ambassador to G.B. Tried to open up West Indian trade and stop impressment but only succeeded in removing English troops from American soil.
Missouri Compromise
1819-1820. Dealt w/ slavery & its expansion (secession only slightly)
The Great Compromise
Authored by Roger Sherman: CT
Resulted in Bi-cameral legislature. (Virginia AND New Jersey Plans) At Philadelphia Convention. Saved the new government.
Puritans
Fled James and Laud: wanted religious utopia. (Saw themselves as last bastion of pure Christianity) Fearful of outsiders (incl. Pilgrims and Catholics); intolerant and isolated. NOT Pacifistic: English Civil War 1641 - 1660 and The Pequot War 1675 - 1676
New England Colonists
Life Expectance: 70 Men; 62 Women (previously skewed by including infants) Average family: 4 - 6 children. Little slavery (no need); Isolated Puritan communities. Climate and geography supported settlement by townships.
Third Amendment
Prohibits illegal quartering of troops in private homes
Article II Constitution
Deals w/Congress
Writ of Habeus corpus
Authorities must present evidence w/i 48 hours. Only Congress can suspend (President as a wartime act) Lincoln: Tennessee and Maryland
Dutch Colonizers
Fought with Natives; exploitive fur trade. Bloody war w/Algonquins 1643. They were small in #: recruited other nationalities to settle. New Netherland = diverse = infighting. Patroon System and climate harsh: few takers
North American Natives
Diversified economies (except Great Plains: hunters only) Oral traditions; nature sacred. Went to war over territory (some tribes more warlike than others)
Spanish Colonizers
Ideal colonial: young unmarried male seeking riches and return to Spain. 16th Century: 1500 conquistadors / year. Exploited natives; then African slaves (Charles V & Las Casas). Established large plantations: adeletandos. Introduced horses.
First Amendment
Free speech; religion; Right to Assemble and petition
Sixth Amendment
Deals w/Rights of the Accused (speedy trial). Re-enforces DOI. Reflects fears of Anti-Federalists
Impeachment
Article I; Sec.2: must start in the House. Sec.3: moves to Senate (presided over by Chief Justice). If guilty: removed. 1867: Andrew Johnson escaped removal by one vote. Nixon: neither impeached nor removed. Clinton: impeached: not removed.
XYZ Affair
1796 President John Adams. French were seizing U.S. ships and cargo. 'X,Y&Z' (anonymous sources) told Adams that French PM Talleyrand would accept a 250K bribe / 12 million $ interest-free loan to 'negotiate' the issues'. Adams leaked it to the press who ran with it. Adams considered it his greatest accomplishment. Saved U.S. honor.
Jay Treaty
John Jay: appointed by G. Washington in 1794 as Special Ambassador to G.B. Tried to open up West Indian trade and stop impressment but only succeeded in removing English troops from American soil.
Missouri Compromise
1819-1820. Dealt w/ slavery & its expansion (secession only slightly)
The Great Compromise
Authored by Roger Sherman: CT
Resulted in Bi-cameral legislature. (Virginia AND New Jersey Plans) At Philadelphia Convention. Saved the new government.
Patrick Henry
Anti-Federalist
Anti-Federalists
Believed: Supreme Court = too powerful and no rights in writing. Result: Bill of Rights. Opposed Electoral College. Feared country too large for one form of republican government.
Washington D.C.
Proposed as seat of government in 1790
Nullification Controversy
RE: South Carolina 1831 - 32
Royal Colonies
New York; New Hampshire; Delaware: all directly under Crown
Kansas-Nebraska Acts
Touched on sesession. More slavery and its expansion
Mason-Dixon Line
Touched on sesession. More on slavery and its expansion
Treaty of Ghent
Ended War of 1812 but did not prevent the Battle of New Orleans 2 weeks later.
Battle of New Orleans
American victory in War of 1812 after Treaty of Ghent was signed in 1815. 2000 British killed / 13 Americans
American invasion of Canada
Part of War of 1812: ended in American defeat
Battle of Lake Eerie
Part of War of 1812: major American Naval victory
British burn Washington
1814 (during War of 1812)
Monroe Doctrine
1823 Foreign Policy
1)U.S. to remain neutral in the face of European Wars
2)No more colonization of Western Hemisphere
3)Leave independent countries of N and S. America alone.
England supported: avoided war w/ Spain over their deteriorating empire
Washington's Farewell Address
America should avoid future wars. (1797)
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 dealt with rights of Federal Government over States
Dred Scott
Slavery decision: 1857 Roger Taney
Marbury v. Madison
1803 Established power of judicial review
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1832. Chief Justice John Marshall writing for majority: tribe NOT a 'nation w/i a nation' but cannot be removed from their lands. (They eventually were: Trail of Tears) President Jackson scoffed at the decision: re-enforced that the Executive Branch had to enforce the decisions of the Supreme Court for them to have any merit.
Commercial Market Farming
One major cash-crop per year
After 1812, prices rose, tempting farmers. Process too complex: short-term debt. Farmers became pawns of middlemen.
2nd Bank of U.S.
Nicholas Biddle at odds w/President Jackson
1830 - 40's Reforms
Temperance (males drank ~.5 pints per day).
Religious: The Second Great Awakening (revivalism)
Seneca Falls Convention 1848: Women's Rights and educational reforms.
NOT unionization: un-American; anti-individualistic; 'foreign input'.
Labor Reforms
Not in 1800's: Unions seen as 'foreign' and anti-American
Andrew Johnson
Most influential 19th century President and most influential since G. Washington.
Use of Veto as offensive political weapon
Andrew Johnson (Maysville Veto; Second Bank of U.S. Veto)
"The Kitchen Cabinet"
advisors loyal to him appointed by Andrew Johnson to wrest control away from Congress and his Party
Appointed Civil Servants to Federal Government
Andrew Johnson
Created 'spoil system' (cronyism; favoritism)
Andrew Johnson
First manipulation of public opinion by a President
Andrew Johnson (as w/ Nicholas Biddle and the 2nd U.S. Bank struggle)
Johnson's Bank War
Believed the Bank too pro-East and pro-business under Biddle. Refused to re-charter: Grounds: unconstitutional and an illegal monopoly. Used public opinion: Bank's foreign creditors could influence American foreign policy; the Bank catered to the wealthy and raised the taxes of the working man and the farmer.
The 'Sambo Personality'
Stanley Elkins: 1961. "Slavery" Likened American slavery to Nazi concentration camps; broke Blacks' personalities and minds.
Herbert Aptheker
Marxist: viewed slaves as heroic rebels
George Fitzhugh
1850's Southern champion of slavery. Viewed it as 'positive good': all great empires relied on slaves.
"Cannibals All": black slaves better off than Northern factory workers.
Blacks inately inferior.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
"Uncle Tom's Cabin": first depiction of Blacks as human beings.
Eugene Genovese
Contemporary historian. "Roll Jordan, Roll". Rebutts the 'Sambo theory'.
American Colonization Society
Benjamin Lundy: tried to end slavery
William Lloyd Garrison
Abolitionists - American Anti-Slavery Society
No strong stance: wanted political resolution of slavery issues
Henry Clay; Stephen Douglas
Lincoln's primary issue: Election of 1860
Keeping the nation united. He never advocated the extreme abolitionists who did not care if the South seceded.
John Brown
1859: advocated violence to end slavery
Nat Turner Rebellion
1831: bloodiest slave uprising. 55 whites killed by 15 slaves in Virginia
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854: advocated popular sovereignty to decide the issues of slavery in these territories. (to help the presidential aspirations of Stephen Douglas)
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Headed Seneca Falls Convention of 1848. Militant expression of women's rights.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
1858: over the Senate seat in Illinois
Homestead Act
1862: 160 acre farm in Great Plains to any citizen of majority who would work it for 5 years.
Fugitive Slave Law
also: The Compromise of 1850. Northeners outraged at being legally required to return runaways. (had gained victories in same agreement re: California free and no more slave auctions in D.C.)
Importation of African Slaves
Ended in 1808
Gag Rule
Congressional abolition petitions were tabled w/o discussion.
Wilmot Proviso
Concerns about Utah and New Mexico (slavery) at end of Mexican-American War.
Dred Scott Case
Taney Court: 1857. A Black man sued for freedom on the grounds of his current (northern) inhabitance. Denied basis: Blacks were/could not become citizens. Taney also ruled the Missouri Compromise and all other laws prohibiting slavery were unconstitutional under the 'due process clause' of the Fifth Amendment regarding property.
Election of 1860
4 sectional presidential candidates.
Lincoln: Republican: 40% popular vote; carried college
Breckenridge: Southern Democrat: 18% popular
Stephen Douglas: Northern Democrats: 30% popular vote
John Bell: Constitutional Union Party: 13% popular vote.
Lincoln: seen as minority president w/o national mandate and representing only the North's interests
Emancipation Proclamation
January 1863
Only freed slaves in the States in which Lincoln had no control (the south). It did not mention those in Tennesee or Maryland.
Slavery finally ended: 1865: 13th Amendment
13th Amendment
1865: ended slavery
Confederate Government
Resembled Articles of Confederation from 1784 - 88.
Relied on friendly co-operation: states rights supreme.
State-Centered Federalism
The Confederacy and the Articles of Confederation
Homestead Act
1865 - 1900 ~4 million went West. Most failed and returned. Cause: 160 acres not big enough; water and climate problems; inexperienced farmers.
Those who succeeded thanked the Republican Party.
Black Civil War Soldiers
Lincoln reluctant. Agreed late (1863) w/ Mass 54th. ~185K segregated troops saw limited, but distinguished, action.
Lincolns war powers
Congress was on leave for the first four months: Lincoln was a virtual dictator by necessity.
Election of 1824
No candidate received a clear college majority. Jackson won popular (43%) but the House still chose John Quincy Adams. Jackson cried 'foul' when he discovered that Henry Clay - a V.P. candidate had swung his support to Adams and had been named his Secretary of State.
Radical Republicans' promises to ex-slaves
40 acres and a mule: from the divided land of plantation owners. Never materialized. Radicals did establish free public schools for Blacks and give them the vote and tried to protect them from the KKK and the White Camelia.
Reconstruction
North determined to make South pay. Most ex-slaves became sharecroppers.
The Sellout of 1876
Republican Rutherford Hayes tied w/ Democrat Tilden in the college. When fraud claimed, Hayes met w/ southern Representatives and traded their votes for his promise to withdraw Union troops and end Reconstruction. Gave South permission to terrorize and oppress ex-slaves.
The Albany Plan
Author: Ben Franklin. 1754 plan for colonial unity. Rejected by 1754 Congress. Franklin drew the segmented snake cartoon in support of his plan.
The Know-Nothing Party
Late 1840's.Based on fear of immigrants and Catholics. Special emphasis on allegience to Pope. Members wanted to limit the voting rights of Catholics and immigrants and their ability to hold office.
The Free Soil Party
Focused on stopping the spread of slavery in Western territories.
The Republican Party (at its inception)
wanted to abolish slavery
The Whig Party
a mainstream party opposed to the beliefs of the Know-Nothings. This party was destroyed by more radical ones.
The Populist Party
1890's: formed by farmers seeking to redress economic concerns ignored by the mainstream parties.
Aaron Burr
removed as V.P: 1804
defeated in NY for Governor
conspired w/Spain to ransom President Jefferson for S.W. territories (for his own control)
Tried and acquitted: Chief Justice John Marshall (need for 2 eyewitnesses)
Marshall used incident to embarass Jefferson in 1807
Virginia Plan
Proposition for legislature based solely on population
co-author: James Madison
New Jersey Plan
Proposition for legislature granting each state equal # of votes.
Lewis & Clark
Territory purchased from Napoleon by Jefferson in 1803 (he really only wanted trading rights to the Mississippi) Began 1804 - reached Pacific 1806
Election of 1800
Federalists: Adams and Pickney
Democratic-Republicans: Jefferson and Burr
No majority of Electoral College; ballots did not specify position of candidate
Burr tried to steal tie; Congress voted 37 times; finally chose Jefferson on Hamilton's recommendation
Result: 12th Constitutional Amendment
Merchantilism
Economic policy of British Empire for North America: 17th and 18th centuries. First proposed: 1590's: Richard Haklyt
Colonies forbidden to trade (except w/Britain); discouraged manufacturing: only role was supply of raw materials
Connecticut
Compact / Contract Colony: almost completely independent of British rule until Revolution
James Madison
Author: Bill of Rights
Co-author: Virginia Plan
Supported: strong presidency and Supreme Court.
Federalist Papers 'Publius' (w/ Hamilton and Jay: on a par w/DOI and Constitution) During NY ratification Constitution: unique because: expansive freedoms AND energetic government. Threat: single interest group. Counter: large territory and diverse population.
Maryland
Proprietory Colony: 1632: Purchased by Lord Baltimore as refuge for persecuted English Catholics. Never served purpose. Settlers at odds with Baltimore family authority
Saratoga
Military turning point of Revolution; victory persuaded France to aid.
Gates over Burgoyne in New York
Compromise of 1850
Only debate where all were present: Henry Clay; Stephen Douglas; Jefferson Davis; Salmon Chase; William Seward and John C. Calhoun. Key Issue: States' Right to Secession. Secondary:
slavery & expansion into New Mexico and California.
John C. Calhoun
State's Rights advocate; Compromise of 1850; supported secession
Daniel Webster
Anti-Federalist
Opposed secession
Henry Clay
Ardent Constitutionalist
Anti-secessionist
Boston Massacre
Relatively minor: dock workers and British troops; 7 Bostonians killed. Major propaganda
Order of Events:
Begin: Townshend Acts
Townshend Acts: 1767
Boston Massacre: 1770
Boston Tea Party: 1773
1st Continental Congress: 1774
Intolerable Acts: 1774
Battles: Lexington / Concord: 1775
James Otis
Mass. lawyer. 1761: opposed general search warrants (Writs of Assistance) Lost case but advanced theory of appealable law. (? dementia later in life)
Writs of Assistance
Purpose: Control smuggling and prohibit colonies from trade w/France during Seven Years War. Troops could ransack private homes for evidence. James Otis opposed
Colonial Elections
Suffrage: only white male Protestant property owners (those w/large stake in societal well-being) Annual elections: lower legislatures. Active local & county governments: Bi-cameral legislatures
Wars to control North America
Between England and France
First 3: inconclusive
King William's: 1690 - 97
Queen Anne's: 1702 - 13
King George's: 1744 - 48
England vanquished (& Canada seded) in 1763 after Seven Years War (1756 - 63)Fought to control Ohio Territory. Only one to begin in America and spread to Europe.
South Carolina
Black / White Ratio = 20 / 1
(others: 12 - 15% Black) Why? Harsh conditions of rice growing and fear of malaria = no indentured labor willing
Puritan Wars
1675 - 1676: over white encroachment on Natives' lands. Metacomet (King Philip) organized Wampanoags (and other NE tribes) to drive out English. Indian losses: 40% (essentially wiped out). Ended Native resistance to white settlement of NE.
"Order of the Star Spangled Banner"
The organization from which grew the Know-Nothing Party
The Know-Nothing Party
Grew out of the Order of the Star Spangled Banner. Based on fear and dislike of Catholics and immigrants. Strongest in urban and coastal areas. 1855: 2nd largest party / by 1860: no longer a faction. Why? Poor leadership; narrow focus; larger issues (slavery)
Prince Henry of Portugal
Developed new navigational tools and improved shipbuilding techniques = allowed for transoceanic exploration. Compass and improved astrolabes.
Roger Williams
Established RI as a charter colony in 1644 after being exiled from Mass Bay by Puritan leaders. Why: advocating religious tolerance; political leaders should have no say in religion; English should pay Natives for land; government rests on the consent of the governed.
Anne Hutchinson
Exiled from Mass Bay. Why? Advocated that religion should be based on direct intuition of God, not through religious leaders.
Middle Colonies
New York; Delaware; Pennsylvania; New Jersey
French Colonizers
Mostly confined: north of Montreal to mouth of St. Lawrence River. New France: diversified. Fur trade did not require permanent settlements: helped w/Native relations.
Six Nations
Indian tribes: never allied w/French
Middle Passage
Portion of slave route (from Africa to the Americas) during which 13-33% of slaves died.
Bozeman Pass
Lewis & Clark crossed Rockies here.
Northwest Passage
Sought by Henry Hudson in 1609
National Road
Built between Maryland and Illinois between 1806 and 1852
Gold seekers
Crossed through Isthmus of Panama during 1849 Gold Rush
John Winthrop
Puritan Governor: Mass Bay. Opposed religious tolerance. Exiled Roger Williams & Anne Hutchinson
William Penn
Established religious tolerance in Pennsylvania
Religious tolerance in Rhode Island
Roger Williams
Religious tolerance in Maryland
Lord Baltimore (Catholics)
Religious tolerance in Virginia
Thomas Jefferson (late) he authored the Virginia State for Religious Tolerance in 1786
Wool Act
1699: Early British law to curtail American manufacturing
Intolerable Acts
1774. Included closing Boston Harbor. In response to the Boston Tea Party (1773)
Order of tension-producing events:
Beginning w/Boston Massacre
Boston Massacre: 1770
Committee of Correspondance: 1772
Gaspee Affair: 1772
Boston Tea Party: 1773
Continental Congress: 1774
Nathaniel Greene
Commanded American troops in the South (Revolutionary War)
1787 Constitutional Convention
Held in Philadelphia
Alexander Hamilton's report on Public Credit
1790. Proposed that the Federal Government should assume all Revolution War debt (both that of States and that of the Confederation)
Alexander Hamilton
Advocated National Bank
Protective tariff
Bounties to encourage manufacturing
Thomas Jefferson
Reduced Federal budget via military cuts. Opposed National Bank and assumption of debt, but did not change.
Albert Gallatin
Secretary of Treasurer under Jefferson: tried to pay off National Debt quickly
Adams-Onis Treaty
1819: Gave us East and West Florida in exchange for the abandonment of 5 million dollars worth of American claims against Spain
Louisiana
Purchased in 1803 from France
Texas
Obtained independence from Mexico in 1836. Statehood in 1845
49th Parallel
Border between Oregon and Canada. Accepted by U.S. and British in 1846
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Gave us California in 1848
Report on Manufactures
Alexander Hamilton 1791: gave bonuses to new industries
American System
Henry Clay: included protective tariffs; 2nd Bank of U.S. and federally funded internal improvements
Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments to Constitution. Proposed 1789. Ratified 1791.
10th Constitutional Amendment
Reserves all powers to States except those specifically witheld and those specifically delegated to the Federal Government
Constitutional Amendments 1-9
Part (w/#10) of Bill of Rights. They limit Congress; forbidding the encroachment of certain basic rights (speech, assembly, petition, etc.)
Key difference / issue between North and South at the time of Civil War
Generally accepted now as slavery.
Jacksonian Era
Rhetorical egalitarianism: "Jacksonian Democracy". (no significant increase in social mobility) Opposed Indian rights; supported the spoils system.
Irish Immigration
Beginning in the 1830's: large numbers. Resented for dress, religion, accent and clannishness.
Scalawag
Native-born Southerners who co-operated with Northern authorities during Reconstruction
Abandonment of Silver Coins
1873: Congress.
Bland-Allison Act
1878
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1890. Despite its passage, the government refused to coin the silver it purchased.
Government offers to buy silver at 16:1 in relation to gold
1834
Tenure of Office Act
1867. Passed to reduce the power of Andrew Jackson.
Morill Tariff Act
1861
Conscription Act
1863
National Banking Act
1863
1860 Slave Population
4 million
Specie Circular
1836. Andrew Jackson. Only gold or silver or bank notes backed by gold or silver could be used to pay for public land. Helped spark the panic of 1837.
1832 Veto of Bank Charter renewal
Jackson. He then withdrew federal funds contributed to the expansion of circulating bank notes which led to the Specie Circular
Twelfth Amendment
Electoral College must vote separately for President and V.P. (because of tie between Jefferson and Burr)
Second Constitutional Amendment
Right to Bear Arms
The Federalist Papers
85 anonymous essays advocating the ratification of the Constitution and stressing the inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation. (Jefferson, Jay and Madison were 'Publius')
Ostend Manifesto
1854. American ministers to France, G.B. and Spain met in Ostend, Beligium and stated that if Spain would not sell Cuba, we had the right to take it by force.
The Declaratory Act
1766. Passed after Parliament rescinded the Stamp Act 1765. Affirmed that Parliament had the right to make binding laws on the Colonies.
The Quartering Act
1765
The Currency Act
1764
The Sugar Act
1764
The Stamp Act
1765
The Scarlett Letter
Nathanial Hawthorne: 1850
The House of the Seven Gables
Nathaniel Hawthorne: 1851
Leaves of Grass
Walt Whitman: 1855
Walden
Henry David Thoreau: 1854
Moby Dick
Herman Melville: 1851
Secessionism during War of 1812
Strongest among New England Federalists. Voiced at Hartford Convention 1814-15
The Hartford Convention
1814-15. Recommended constitutional amendments to weaken Southern power and the Democratic party (by New England Federalists)
Joint-Stock Company
Form of business organization. Formed Jamestown and Massachusetts.
The Econmienda
Grant to Natives living on a specific piece of land in the Spanish colonies.
Prince Henry
Financed the development of new navigation techniques in the 15th century.
George III
Kind of England during American Revolution
Republicanism
Became the dominant political ideology during the American Revolution (1776 - 1783)
Northeast's primary concern after 1840
Manufacturing
Most influential citizens in New England 1760's
Merchants
Advantage of North over South during Civil War
Fighting offensive war
Increased manufacturing; large immigrant labor force; diverse economy; open harbors
Union Strategies
Block Confederate coastline
Seize control of Mississippi
Seize Richmond, Virginia
Control interior southern railways
Presidents after Lincoln
Andrew Jackson
Ulysses Grant
Rutherford Hayes
Garfield
Chester Arthur
The Northwest Ordinance
Barred slavery from these territories (1787)
Virginia Colony
Founded as Joint-Stock (1607) Became a Royal Colony in 1624.
The growth of anti-slavery sentiment
The Liberator (Garrison) 1831
American Anti-Slavery Society: 1833
The 'gag rule': 1836
The Liberty Party: 1840
Uncle Tom's Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe): 1851-52
The Panic of 1857
Caused by over-speculation in railroad stocks. Bank failures highest in North; few in South. Lasted ~ 1 year: by 1858 the economy began to recover: European demand for foodstuffs and cotton.
Spanish New World Civilizations
Spanish King sole authority: represented by two viceroys.
Indians enslaved until the 1540's: then subject to forced labor (repartimiento). The Mission System evangelized the Natives. Main interest initially: gold and silver (exploited)
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Founded 1630 by the Puritans (wanted to purify, not separate from the Anglican Church).
The Pilgrims
Separatists: established Plymouth in 1620. Signed the Mayflower Compact (agreement to follow groups rules and laws) Helped by Squanto who taught them about nature and survival.
The Mayflower Compact
Signed by all the majority free male Pilgrims before landing at Plymouth. Agreement to follow all the laws adopted by the group.
Georgia
Founded by James Ogelthorpe: 1732. Debtor Colony to help those released from British prisons.
Who thought the Spanish colonies too weak to hold on to their territories at the turn of the 19th century?
Thomas Jefferson
What State seceded BEFORE Lincoln's inauguration?
South Carolina (1860)
Patroons
Owners of large tracts of land in Dutch "New Netherland"
Who took over New Netherland?
The British (1664)
The Pequot War
Between Puritans and Pequots (1635 - 67)
The French Huguenots
Settled in the Carolinas (then joined) during the 17th century.
Colonial farm implements
mould board plow; hoe, rake and grain cradle.
Founded Pennsylvania
William Penn (1681)
Two largest Southern cities
Charleston, South Carolina (pop. 10,000 in 1750) Baltimore, Maryland (pop. 5000 in 1750)
Who controlled the 'purse strings' of the colonial governments?
The Colonial Assemblies (this put them in an advantageous bargaining position with the royal governor)
"Popular Sovreignty"
Concept of Stephen Douglas; embodied: Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The people decide the slavery issue for themselves.
President / Vice President of the Confederacy
Jefferson Davis / Alexander Stephens
Robert E. Lee
Commander of Confederate forces
Robert. Y. Hayne
South Carolina Senator prior to the Civil War. Outspoken supporter of Southern issues / slavery / State's Rights
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senatoro prior to the Civil War. Outspoken supporter of Southern issues / slavery / State's Rights
1849
California 'Gold Rush'
1859
Colorado and Nevada 'Gold Rushes'
1874
South Dakota 'Gold Rush'
1880 and 1896
Alaskan 'Gold Rushes'
Introduced log cabins
Swedes, in Delaware be tween 1638 and 1655
Treaty of Paris
1783
Declaration of Independence
1776
Cornwallis surrenders
1781
Constitutional Convention
Philadelphia: 1787
Constitution ratified
1789
Lincoln and Johnson saw the Civil War as a rebellion of what?
Individuals.
By what method did Lincoln and Johnson deal with those they saw as responsible for the Civil War?
Presidential pardons.
How did the Radical Republicans see the South after the Civil War?
Conquored provinces / unorganized territories overwhich Congress should have control.
The Black Codes
Passed by the South after the Civil War.
How were slaves counted and for what purposes?
As 3/5 of a white man: for both taxation and representation. This was a compromise: the South wanted to count them for representation but not taxation and the North took the opposite position.
What General emerged to prominence in battles along the Mississippi?
Ulysses S. Grant (Fort Donelson and Vicksburg)
Who became the Supreme Commander of all Southern forces in 1864?
Ulysses S. Grant
South Carolina Senator between 1832 - 1850
John C. Calhoun
Hinton Rowan Helper
Published 'The Imipending Crisis' in 1857. (said slavery caused the South to be economically inferior to the North)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Published 'Uncle Tom's Cabin' in 1851-52
William Lloyd Garrison
Leading white abolitionist (immediate, uncompensated abolition of slavery)
Frederick Douglass
Leading black abolitionist
Unitarianism
Roots in 18th century Enlightenment. Rejected concept of the Trinity.
William Ellery Channing
Formally organized Unitarianism in 1825. (No doctrine beyond the universal brotherhood of God and man)
Deism
Widespread religious belief among the educated classes in the 18th century.
Transcendentalism
Philosophical and literary movement involving several reformed Unitarians (including Ralph Waldo Emerson). Emerged in the 1830's
Presbyterianism and Congregationalism
Orthodox Christian denominations deeply rooted in the colonial period.
Alien and Sedition Acts
1797 - 98. President John Adams' attempt to crush the Democratic - Republicans (Thomas Jefferson and James Madison).
John Adams motivation for Alien and Sedition Acts
He feared that Jefferson / the Democratic - Republicans were bent on establishing a French-style class system in America. The A&S Acts were his attempt to keep his party in power.
What were the provisions of the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Increased residency requirement for citizenship (from 5 to 14 years: new immigrants tended to support Jefferson and now could not vote for 14 years). Gave himself broad powers to remove 'undesirable' aliens (which tended to keep them quiet). Imposed large fines and prison sentences for attacking the American government (the Adams administration).
Jefferson / Madison response to Alien and Sedition Acts.
Jefferson anonymously drafted protest resolutions adopted by the Kentucky legislature. Madison drafted the resolutions adopted by the Virginia legislature (in 1789).
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Penned by Jefferson (anonymously) and Madison respectively in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Relied on the Compact Theory of the Constitution (the federal government is an agent of the states who are the final judges of the limits of federal power.
The Compact Theory of the Constitution
The Federal government is an agent of the states who are the final judges of the limits of federal power.
The Hartford Resolutions
Demanded a series of Constitutional Amendments to:
1: require 2/3 vote of Congress to declare war; admit states and impose commercial restrictions
2: stop counting slaves to apportion Congressional representation
3: restrict Presidents to a single term and prohibit successive presidents from the same state
Doctrine of Nullification
Based on the Compact Theory of the Constitution. When the states entered into the compact, they retained their sovereignty and delegated limited, specific powers to the federal government. If a State judged a federal law to have violated that compact, it could nullify the law within its own borders.
Why did Southern leaders reactivate the Doctrine of Nullification?
In response to the desegretation rulings of the Supreme Court. It was found unconstitutional under the National Supremacy Clause of Article VI of the Constitution
The Scarlett Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851)
Nathaniel Hawthorne's two greatest novels
Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner
All organized unsuccessful rebellions and were executed. Prosser: a slave in Henrico County, Virginia in 1800. Vesey: a free black. Organized slaves in Charleston, South Carolina in 1822. Turner: a slave. Led uprising in Southampton County, Virginia in 1831.
How did Europeans see Native Americans?
As subhuman inferior heathens (non-Christians were all heathens).
Corruption in the Grant Administration
The 'Whiskey Ring' and corruption in the Naval Department
How did the construction of the Eerie Canal affect farmers in the 'Old Northwest'?
They were no longer dependent upon the Mississippi River to move their crops.
Pocahontas
Daughter of Powhatan; kidnapped and held hostage at Jamestown; converted to Christianity (Rebecca). Married John Rolfe in 1614; went to England w/him and died there.
John Peter Zenger
Accused of seditious libel for criticizing New York's governor. Imprisoned for 10 months; brought to trial in 1735. Jury ignored English law which would have convicted him; decided what he said was true and freed him. No laws changed, but more editors became critical.
Thomas Paine
Wrote 'Common Sense' in 1776 during debates on Home Rule. Advocated independence; blamed the King, not the British Parliament, for the colonies troubles.
Controversy over New Netherlands
Founded by Dutch on the Hudson River. Despite this, Charles II bestowed a large portion of its land to his brother in 1664, resulting in 3 Anglo-Dutch wars which the English eventually won (1664)
Scotch-Irish Settlers
Primarily Presbyterian; had been treated badly by English (no loyalty); immigrated because of deteriorating wool industry in Ireland and generally settled on the frontier.
Tidewater South
Area of flourishing slavery. (South Carolina: black majority through most of 18th century.
Where did 18th century slaves come from?
50%: Congo Angola and the Bight of Biafra. Remainder: from the Atlantic coast of Africa up to Senegambia.
Slaves were considered . . .?
Property
Most significant military victory of Revolutionary War?
Battle of Brandywine Creek (Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold v.s. John Burgoyne. He surrendered at Saratoga in 1777. Battle proved to the French that the colonies could win (they recognized the U.S. as independent) and prevented the isolation of New England.
The first State Constitutions . . .
varied in details. Much like colonial governments but elected governors and senates instead of appointed governors and councils. Most contained a Bill of Rights and embodied a separation of powers.
Webster-Hayne Debate
Grew out of the Foot Resolution (Senator Samuel Foot: Connecticut). Sale of public lands should include only those already surveyed and on the market. (Because manufacturers feared the great migration to the West) Western Senators wanted more settlement: they opposed the proposition. The South sided w/ the West just to be against the East. Senator Hayne (South Carolina) accused New England of being disloyal during the War of 1812 and for their insistence on protective tariffs. He claimed Calhoun's doctrine of nullification was the only answer. (Neither man advocated the break-up of the union). This debate was remembered by nullifiers and secessionists for future use.
Oliver Ellsworth
With Roger Sherman, advanced the Connecticut Compromise which resulted in bi-camral federal legislature.
Randolph Plan and Patterson Plan
Also known as The New Jersey Plan and the Plan
Chief Justice John Marshall
Viewed the Constitution as an instrument of national unity: created its own sanctions by its implied powers.
The Marshall Court
Affirmed the Court's constitutional power to engage in judicial review of federal and state legislation; gave judicial sanction to the doctrine of centralization of powers at the expense of the states and erected barriers against attacks upon property rights.
Alexander Hamilton's revenue proposals
An excise tax on Whiskey. Resulted in Western Pennsylvanian farmers' armed 'Whiskey Rebellion'. President Washington put down the rebellion w/ 13,000 troops
The Louisiana Purchase . . .
More than doubled the U.S.; gave farmers access to the Mississippi River and gave the U.S. control of New Orleans.
Jefferson was troubled by the Louisiana Purchase because . . .
He doubted that he had the Constitutional power to make the purchase. (He interpreted the Constitution 'strictly'.)
The Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842. Fixed the present North-Eastern Main-Canada border and provided joint Anglo-American effort to supress the African slave trade.
Controversy over Eastern terminus of the transcontinental railway: in the North or in the South?
Southern supporters: easier to build (mountains lower); would not pass through unorganized territory (a Northern route would have to pass through unorganized Nebraska territory: no troops to protect against Indians). Northern Supporters: O.K.: organize Nebraska.
Stephen Douglas, Senator from Illinois: involvement in transcontinental terminus controversy
1854. Wanted Chicago as terminus (personal investments in Chicago real estate and railroad stock) He could gain political support AND benefit personally. Knew the South would not agree to organize Nebraska w/o some concession to slavery. Pushed through Kansas-Nebraska Act: 2 territories organized, not 1: Kansas = slave; Nebraska = free; Missouri Compromise = repealed; status of slavery in new territories = popular sovereignty. South supported: North rejected but it passed.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Passed by Stephen Douglas to resolve the eastern terminus of the transcontinental railway (in Chicago). Repealed the Missouri Compromise.
Andrew Johnson and Native Americans
They were better off out of the way. Passed the Indian Removal Act. (Cherokee Nation v.s. Georgia)
Principal of Rotation in Office
Andrew Jackson: no man has any more intrinsic right to official station than another. Breeds indifference and untoward toleration. More citizens involved in government = government more responsive to electorate.
Jefferson attacked the Quebec Act of 1774 in the . .
Declaration of Independence.
The Quebec Act of 1774
Established an authoritative government and Roman Catholicism in Quebec and all territory west of the Appalachians, north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi.
The Quartering Act
1774. Colonists must supply room and board for British troops at their own expense.
The Prohibitory Act
late 1775. Americans no longer under the protection of King George III; essentially a declaration of war.
The Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts
1765 and 1768: attempts by British parliament to tax the colonists.
William Lloyd Garrison
Most vehement of northern abolitionists (complete and immediate abolition). Published 'The Liberator': attacked more moderate abolitionists; advocated Northern secession and castigated slaveholders. On July 4, 1854 he burned a copy of the Constitution and stated "So perish all compromises with tyranny."
Election of 1860
Lincoln received 39% popular vote; won electoral majority. He carried every free state except New Jersey.
Candidates Election of 1860
Lincoln: Republican
Democrats split: Northern Democrats = Stephen A. Douglas; Southern Democrats = John C. Breckenridge
Democratic split in election of 1860 caused . . .
No candidate to win popular majority. (Lincoln: 39% popular; majority of electorate)
Lincoln's primary reason for Civil War?
Preserving the Union
Radical Republicans on slavery . . .
Moral, not a political issue. Wanted immediate emancipation.
Andrew Johnson's plan for Reconstruction:
Loyal, white Southern citizens should draft and ratify new constitutions; elect state legislatures; repeal the ordinance of secession; repudiate the Confederate state debts and ratify the 13th Amendment.
The Congressional Plan for Reconstruction
New lists of registered voters should include former slaves. They should elect a constitutional convention which must provide guarantees of universal manhood suffrage. Once that was done, each state's senators and congressmen would be admitted to Congress.
Indian population at time of Cortez
at least 20 million
Indian population 100 years after Cortez
2 million (European diseases, primarily)
Thomas Malthus
"Essay on Population": 1789. Contended that since population increased by geometric ratio and food supply increased only by an arithmatic ratio, population would eventually outstrip food supplies.
First English North American settlement
Roanoak, Virginia (failed)
First permanent, successful English North American settlement
Jamestown, Virginia 1607. (near mouth of Jamestown River)
10th Federalist Paper
Written anonymously by Alexander Hamilton; meant to ease fears about proposed Constitution by explaining that it would preserve the rights of the states.
George Washington's farewell address at the end of his Presidency
Advised America to keep free of European entanglements.
Religious toleration in Maryland
For all Christian faiths through the Toleration Act of 1649
William Penn viewed Pennsylvania as . . .
a holy experiment. He constructed a 'frame of government' that guaranteed complete religious freedom to residents
The Peace of Paris
1763: gave Britain all French North America east of the Mississippe and all of Spanish Florida. (France ceded Lousiana to Spain to compensate them for losing Florida, which barred colonists from the trans-Missippi West.
Why was tobacco such a good cash crop?
It could be planted in semi-cleared land and cultivated with a hoe.
The last colony
Georgia. Meant to help Englishmen imprisoned for debt start a new life AND as a military barrier against the Spaniards on the southern border of English America
Merchantilism
The pursuit of economic power through national self-sufficiency: the dominant economic doctrine in Western Europe by 1660. Encouraged the state to stimulate manufacturing; to develop and protect its own shipping and to make use of colonies as sources of raw materials and market for manufactured goods.
Cotton Mather
Influential Puritan minister and intellectual. Leading figure in Mass. witch trials 1692 - 94. Published "Magnalia Christi Americana": a tribute to great Puritan Americans in 1704.
Noah Webster
Late 18th century champion of American culture. Created American English language.
Freneau, Crevecoueur and Barlow
post-Revolutionary writers exhalting new American culture through essays, poems and plays. Saw America as special to freedom and liberty in world history.
Former President John Adams tactics against the Jefferson Administration
Tried to use the national courts to block Jefferson's programs. Appointed several new Federalist federal judges the night before Jefferson's inauguration. Jefferson tried to remove them (the 'midnight appointments') through one Supreme Court test case: Marbury v. Madison. The Marshall Court demurred to Congress (but also declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional and granted the Supreme Court the power of judicial review.)
The Marshall Court
Demurred to Congress in Marbury v. Madison.
Declared the 1789 Judiciary Act unconstitutional; affirmed the Court's power of judicial review.
Fletcher (1810): extended the power of judicial review over state governments.
Gibbons (1824): extended governmental power over commerce.
Martin (1816): extended judicial review over state courts
Dartmouth (1819): offered contract and corporation interpretation which would greatly influence the 19th century economy.
The Power of Judicial Review
(The Marshall Court)
Allows the Supreme Court as the last voice on the constitutionality of American law.
Power of Original Jurisdiction
(Supreme Court) Grated by Article III of the Constitution
The "War Hawks"
Henry Clay and his Western supporters advocated war w/ Britain (the War of 1812) to advance westward push; to enhance their land speculations and end the 'Indian menace'.
Federalist and New Englanders' feelings about the War of 1812
Vehemently opposed war (as were British nobility)
President Madison's feelings about the War of 1812
Tried peaceful resolution: went to war reluctantly.
The Hartford Convention
1814. Came out of New England's opposition to the War of 1812. Led by Federalists, it was meant to explore regions options. Came up with a plan for States' Rights exactly like that which would be advanced by the South prior to the Civil War. Few delegates supported secession. Convention accomplished little except they were seen as unpatriotic due to the victory at the Battle of New Orleans and the Treaty.
1819
Co-operative nationalism of America since the War of 1812 ended because of slavery and the statehood of Missouri coming before Congress.
From 1815 through 1819
The nation co-operated in public improvements and advanced views of a monolithic patriotism. The issue of Missouri statehood ended this period as sectionalism increased.
The Missouri Compromise
Henry Clay: Kentucky. Sectional balance between free and slave to continue: Maine comes in free; Missouri comes in slave: 12 and 12. Established the 36-30 line: only areas south could come in as slave states.
Between 1820 and 1850
American population more than doubled
Chesapeake Affair
1807: involved British impressment of American seamen
The Non-Intercourse Act
Jefferson's feeble attempt to avoid the War of 1812
The Domestication of the Family
The 1820's. Home = refuge from outside world to escape societal demands. Love replaced harsh discipline: children center-state in familial matters. Women = separate spheres from men: raised children; rran the home. Men = made money. Kind of 'separate but equal' doctrine.
The Tariff Act of 1832 (meant to protect New England industries)
Led directly to the Nullification Crisis between South Carolina and the U.S.
Henry Clay intervened and averted war: South Carolina did not have to pay, but States' Rights doctrines were not advanced.
Benjamin Lundy
1817. The American Colonization Society: the first anti-slavery organization. Gradual emancipation; abolition not political but moral. Tried to appeal to the Christian mindset to emancipate their own slaves, who would then be returned to Africa. (Society extremely racist: blacks inferior)
Manifest Destiny
1820's and 30's through the 19th century. America had the God-given right to create a mighty nation which spanned the two coasts. American economy demanded new markets; an expanding frontier guaranteed that nation would remain a democracy of small, yeoman farmers.
One of the most famous speeches in American history
Given by Daniel Webster in defense of the Compromise of 1850 to the House of Representatives. Meant to stamp out sectionalism.
The Secret Six
A group of New York millionaires who provided money for John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry Virginia in 1859. (raid on federal arsenal for weapons to lead massive uprising). When the ties to the Secret Six were discovered during Brown's trial, the South began to seriously consider secession as it's only course against abolitionists. The SS felt Lincoln too soft on slavery
April 12, 1861
Confederates bomb Fort Sumter.
First to secede
The Lower South: South Carolina; Alabama; Mississippi; Florida; Georgia; Lousiana and Texas.
Last to secede
The Upper South: Virginia; Arkansas; Tennessee and North Carolina
Northern sentiments about the Civil War
They opposed it. Draft riots and threats by the Copperheads.
Anti-Lincoln Republicans
The Radical Republicans
Scalawags
Pro-Union Southeners
King Cotton Diplomacy
The sole foreign policy stategy of the Confederacy. They refused to export cotton to Europe, hoping to cause a depression in the North.(Failed because Europe had been stockpiling cotton since 1855 in anticipation and because they found a new source in Egypt.
The Stars and Bars
The Confederate flag
War of Attrition
General Grant's military strategy for ending the Civil War.
The Zenith of the Great Plains Indians
The 1840's
Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction
Lenient toward the South: states re-enter on a state-by-state basis after agreeingi to abolish slavery; educate ex-slaves; establish Republican governments and have 10% of Southern citizens take an oath of loyalty to the Union. (Did not provide for citizenship for ex-slaves)
Wade-Davis Act
Broke the Radical Republicans from Lincoln. Southern states were considered conquered provinces to be handled under military rule. 50% of voters must take loyalty oath. Lincoln vetoed.
The Fifteenth Amendment
Extended the vote to ex-slaves
Andrew Johnson's Impeachment Proceedings
Congress cited his violation of the Tenure of Office Act (9 of 11 charges) in removing Sec. of War Henry Stanton w/o Senate approval.
The Morill Act
1862. Established publically financed land-grant colleges in the states.
The Civil Rights Act
Passed in 1866 in response to the Black Codes passed by Southern governmnents.
Ex Parte Milligan 1866
Supreme Court decision: civilian courts should have been allowed to function during the Civil War (not military tribunals Lincoln established)
Thomas Nast
Political cartoonist
The Stamp Act Congress . . .
afforded colonial leaders the opportunity to meet and establish aadquaintances with one an other. 9 colonies were represented. The results were only mild protestations against the act.
South's attitude toward slavery between 1835 - 1865
They defended slavery as a positive benefit to society -and even to the slaves.
Southern crop prices during the 1850's
High. Southerners saw this as their slave society being economically superior to that of the North - especially when the North was hit so hard by the Panic of 1857
Merchantilists
The government should direct the economy to maximize exports.
High tariff barriers were good, as was possession of colonies.
Exports must exceed imports.
Bacon's Rebellion
His followers resented the Virginia governor Berkeley's refusal to protect their frontier area from Indian raids.
Shay's Rebellion (1786)
Caused by Massachusetts authorities jailing and seizing property for failure to pay taxes during hard economic times.
The Newburgh Conspiracy
Composed of army officers disgusted with a central governmnet too weak to collect taxes to pay them and their troops.
Benedict Arnold's treason
Giving the plans for the fort at West Point to the British
The 1791 Whiskey Rebellion
Concerned Western Pennsylvanian farmers who opposed an excise tax on whiskey.
New England's threat to secede
At the Hartford Convention in 1814 (not strongly supported)
The Wilmot Proviso
intended to prohibit slavery in the area acquired through the Mexican War.
Measures to calm the furor over the Wilmot Proviso
1. California should be free but the remainder of the Mexican Cession was reserved for slavery.
2. Slavery in the Mexican Cession should be determined by popular sovereignty
3. The Missouri Compromise line should be extended to the Pacific coast.
Why did the Whigs turn on President Tyler?
He opposed their entire legislative program
John L. O'Sullivan
Coined the phrase 'Manifest Destiny'
Causes of the Mexican War
We wanted California.
Mexico owed us money (debts and damages)
The annexation of the formerly Mexican-held Republic of Texas
The disputed southern boundary of Texas
Seward's Folly
His plan to purchase Alaska from Russia
Congress' post-Civil War treatment of Southern Representatives and Senators
They excluded them
The Treaty of Toprdesillas
1494. Intended to divide the non-European world between Spain and Portugal and leave everyone else out in the cold.
Non-importation
Boycotting British goods: the colonists best way to get taxes repealed.
The Tea Act
Enacted in part to save the East India Company
The Mulligan Letters
incriminated 1884 Republican presidential candidate James G. Blaine in an unsavory stock scheme.
Alexis DeTocqueville
Early 19th century visitor to America. Found Americans had little or no sense of social deference; were politicized and individualistic; proud of their country and placed a high value on personal freedom.
Webster, Emerson and Cooper
All writers who contributed to a more distinctly American literature.
The largest reduction inland freight rates between 1815 and 1830
The introduction of steamboats
The Molassas Act
Intended to force colonists to buy sugar from British colonial sources rather than from foreign producers.