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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The total number of chromosomes found in a human cell is
46.
Similarity, proximity, and familarity are important determinants of
Friendship formation.
Juanita is asked by her psychology instructor to look at a picture and to describe the conscious experience of perceiving the picture. Juanita will be demonstrating the technique known as
Introspection.
The whole of conscious experience is to gestalt, as the basic elements of consciousness are to
Structuralism.
When Amanda told her therapist that she feels fine in the summer but drained and depressed in the winter, her therapist immediately ordered several tests on her nervous system. Amanda's therapist most likely takes which approach to therapy?
Biological.
Dr. Crane studies how the thickness of the beaks of one species of birds had undergone changes in response to drought and other environmental factors over a long period of time. Which psychological approach does Dr. Crane take?
Evolutionary.
In her therapeutic practice, Dr. Dellinger takes the psychodynamic approach. Accordingly, when her patient complains that she is afraid to leave her house, the doctor might offer which of the following explnations?
"There is an unconscious part of you that wants to act in a way that you know is wrong. You are afraid that if you go outside, you will behave in a shameful manner."
"All of your problems can be traced to what you have learned to expect from the men that you've dated in the past," said Dr. Stein to his patient. "Because you have been treated poorly, the whole arena of dating now brings up negative associations and is anxiety-provoling." Which psychological approach does Dr. Stein appear to take?
The behavioral approach.
Dr. Xu is concerned about one of his client. He believes that this client sees herself as helpless and weak and hre husband as cold and unsympathetic. Because of these perceptions, Dr. Xu believes this client has jeopardized her chances of self-actualizing. What approach to psychology does Dr. Xu take?
Humanist.
Dr. Adams has constructed a theory that attempts to describe the changes in how people perceive themselves over time. He note that the first step is for children to recognize themselves in a mirror. Later, people tend to identify themselves by the material goods that they own. In the next stage of life, self-perception is determined by people's assessment of their own behavior. Dr. Adams is probably what type of psychologist?
A developmental psychologist.
During a recent school improvement day at a local high school, a guest speaker addressed the faculty and told them how to detect the warning signs of eating disorders in their students. The guest speaker was most likely which type of psychologist?
Community.
Robert grew up in a poor community with many people of the same ethnic background. His parents always stressed that he should be proud of his heritage and people. Robert went to college and became a doctor. After graduating, he had a chance to get a high-paying job at a hospital in an affluent part of the city. Instead, he took a lower-paying job at a clinic located where he grew up so he could help "his people." Robert most likely grew up in what kind of culture?
Collectivist.
As Eleanor submitted her graduate thesis for review, it was returned to her with the comment, "The test that you chose to use is not a true measure of the variable under study." Eleanor's mistake involves
Validity.
Dr. Williams is an educational psychologist. She is studying a target school in Chicago. She takes very careful notes and studies school documents. What type of research is Dr. Williams conducting?
A case study.
Dr. Melendres is conducting an experiment on the effects of caffeine on people's ability to study and retain information. He gives the members of group 1 two cups of coffee before they begin to study and he gives the members of group 2 ten cups of coffee before they begin to study. The members in group 3 are not allowed to drink coffee before they begin to study. Each group is given the same materials to study and the same test over that material at the end of the experiment. In this example, what is the independent variable?
The amount of coffee given to the subjects.
Dr. Ivanov, a music teacher, is conducting a study on the effects of music education on children's verbal creativity. During piano lessons, he unconsciously plays word games with the children in the experimental group. Those games eventually contribute to their having higher verbal creativity scores. Dr. Ivanov's study is flawed due to
Experimenter bias.
Emma's grandson is ill, and she doesn't have any medicine for him. She mixes up some juice, puts it in a medicine bottle, and gives it to him. Because the grandson sees the juice coming out of a medicine bottle, he assumes it is medicine. A little later, he starts feeling better. The effect of the juice on the grandson's condition is known as
The placebo effect.
A quasi-experiment would be more appropriate than a controlled experimental design to test which of the following hypotheses?
The hypotheisi that children of divorce are more susceptible to school absences due to illness.
Dr. Pavlakos sends out her survey to 1,500 college students. Only 57 return completed surveys to her. Because of the low response, Dr. Pavlakos many not have
A representative sample.
Recent research indicates that class attendance is positively correlated with final grades. What does this mean?
The more someone goes to class, the more likely it is that he or she will get a good grade.
Which of the following refers to the influence of nurture rather than nature?
Brittany developed a lvoe for music after attending several concerts with her parents.
Nathan has decided to major in psychology in college. He will most likely study
Behavior and mental processes.
John Watson once stated that if he could control the environment of a child from birth, he could make that child into whatever he wanted. His position that each of us is born a blank slate and that we are the product of our experiences is most consistent with what philosophical school?
Empiricism.
In 1879, the first psychological research labortory was set up by
Wilhelm Wundt.
Jamie knows that chocolate chip cookies are made from chocolate chips, flour, sugar, butter, and vanilla. Not wanting to cook, Jamie puts some chocolate chips, flour, sugar, butter, and vanilla in his mouth. He is quite surprised that the ingredients do not taste like a chocolate chip cookie. Jamie's experience that the whole is more than the sum of its parts is most consistent with what school of psychology?
Gestalt.
Sigmund Freud asserted that all mental disorders could be traced to
Unconscious mental forces.
William James and the functionalists were primarily interested in studying
The elements of consciousness and their role in helping people adapt to their environemnt.
John Watson believed that psychology should limit itself to the study of
Observable behavior.
Dr. Johnson, who takes the evolutionary approach to psychology, would most likely explain human behavior in terms of
Natural Selection.
The psychological approach that is based on Sigmound Freud's theory is the
Psychodynamic approach.
Dr. Esparza believes that all behavior-both abnormal and normal-is learned. She is not interested in the person's mind; she studies only what is observable and measurable. Dr. Esparza takes what approach to psychology?
Behavioral.
According to the humanistic approach, mental disorders are caused by
Distorted views of the world.
Dr. Wallace studies elementary school children. He is interested in the children's play habits, friendships, and ability to communicate. He is especially interested in how the behavior of one child will affect a group of children and how a group will affect an individual child. What type of psychologist is Dr. Wallace?
Social.
Lee is growing up in a collective culture, whereas Andy is growing up in an individualist culture. Lee is more likely than Andy to experience a
Feer of social rejection.
One advantage in using naturalistic observaton rather than an experiment is that naturalistic observations
Are less intrusive.
The social desirability effect is most likely to affect the results of
Surveys.
Which is the only research method that can establish a cause-effect relationship?
An experiment.
Dr. Ali is directing a study of a new anti-anxiety drug using a double-blind design. There will be two groups of participants, but only onw eill actually receive the drug; the other will receive a placebo. Dr. Ali, who will have no contact with the participants until the study is over, has hired assistants to collect the data. Accordingly, who will know which persons are actually receiving the new drug and which are receiving the placebo?
Only Dr. Ali.
What information do we get from a correlation coefficient?
Magnitude and direction.
Which of the following statements is inconsistent with the ethical gudelines psychologists must follow?
An animal's welfare is not important in performing research.
Dr. Singh believes that the potential for alcoholism is passed from parent to child. It this is true, we can expect to find the drinking habits of which of the following pairs of people to be most similar?
A pair of identical twins.
True / False

Freud's ideas have been discredited and have no influence on psychology today.
False.
True / False

Specific behaviors are not inherited.
True
True / False

Critical thinking is wishy-washy psychobabble.
False.
James Schaefer's research of 4,500 customers in 65 bars did not prove that the slower the tempo of the jukebox music, the faster the customers drank alcohol.
True.
Researchers must inform potential participants about every aspect of a clinical drug trial, including the effect that the drug is expected to have on them.
False.