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100 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following is the philosophical approach to studying human behavior that emphasizes the purpose or usefulness of behavior?
Functionalism
Which of the following approaches is used by psychologist who studies depression by examining levels of a certain neurotransmitter in the brains of depressed and non-depressed people?
Biological
Which of the following approaches is used by a psychologist who emphasizes the power of rewards and punishment to influence behavior?
Behavioral
A researcher wants to know whether failure at a task causes aggression. As part of her study, some subjects are told they have failed at a task, whereas others are told they have succeeded. Failing or not failing the task would be...
the independent variable
A researcher sits at a table in a restaurant all day and records what customers in adjoining booths are saying and doing. What type of research is this?
Naturalistic observation
Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables?
-.81
Random assignment of subjects to experimental and control group ensures that...
prior to the experimental manipulation, the two groups of subjects would be equivalent with respect to the dependent variable.
"Nature" is to "nurture" as ____ is to ____
"genetics" is to "enviromnent"
Which of the following areas of the brain, located at the top of the spinal cord, regulates breathing, waking, and heartbeat?
Medulla
The simplest cell of the nervous system is a...
Neuron
which of the following greatly speeds up the transmission of signals through a neuron?
A myelin sheath
The period during which the neuron cannot fire is described as which of the following?
Absolute refractory period
The somatic Nervous system is part of the....
peripheral nervous system
The site in the auditory cortex located where acoustical codes are decoded and interpreted is known as...
Wernicke's area
Which chemicals are responsible for the "runner's high" and important for controlling pleasure/pain properties?
Endorphins
Neurons stimulate nearby glands, muscles, or other neurons through chemicals released from their...
terminal buttons
The reticular formation...
helps control arousal
The nervous system's ability to detect and encode energy from stimuli is called...
sensation
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus half of the time it's presented is called..
the absolute threshold
Tina has a box of CD's that's twice as heavy as Gary's. Tina's box would have to have eight more CDs in it before it would feel heavier, whereas Gary's would have to have only four more CDs in it in order for it to feel heavier. This illustrates....
Weber's Law
By which process is stimulus energy converted into neural messages?
Transduction
Which type of cell allows us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?
Cones
Which of the following is a binocular cue for perceiving distance?
Convergence
The fact that parallel lines appear to converge as they get farther away is referred to as...
linear perspective
When a series of lights on a movie marquee are turned on and off, one after the other, in succession, it appears that a single light is moving around the marquee. This illustrates...
the phi phenomemon
A circadian rhythm is
any pattern of biological functioning that happens over (roughly) a 24-hour cycle.
If someone is awake, has his or her eyes closed, and is in a relaxed state, an EEG would most likely indicate the presence of...
Alpha Waves
During which stage of sleep are hynogogic sensations most likely to occur?
Stage 1
Among humans, the sleep cycle repeats itself every...
90 minutes
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder involving...
uncontrollable attacks of intense sleepiness
The idea that the behavior of people who are hypnotized is controlled by normal, conscious processes is part of the theory that says hypnosis entails...
role playing
Which of the following is involved in classical conditioning and operant conditioning, respectively?
stimulus-stimulus pairings..stimulus-response pairings
Wally is allergic to cat fur and it makes him sneeze violently. Anita has a lot of cats and her clothes often have cat fur on them. After three dates with Anita, Wally has begun to sneeze violently as soon as he sees her.

What type of learning does this illustrate?
Classical Conditioning
Wally is allergic to cat fur and it makes him sneeze violently. Anita has a lot of cats and her clothes often have cat fur on them. After three dates with Anita, Wally has begun to sneeze violently as soon as he sees her.

In this example, cat fur would be a...
Unconditioned stimulus
Wally is allergic to cat fur and it makes him sneeze violently. Anita has a lot of cats and her clothes often have cat fur on them. After three dates with Anita, Wally has begun to sneeze violently as soon as he sees her.

In this example, sneezing would be...
both an unconditioned and a conditioned response
Wally is allergic to cat fur and it makes him sneeze violently. Anita has a lot of cats and her clothes often have cat fur on them. After three dates with Anita, Wally has begun to sneeze violently as soon as he sees her.

If, after the learning took place, Anita began to show up at Wally's without cat fur on her clothes, Wally's learned response would....
Extinguish
Bob gets a dollar for every magazine subscription he sells. What type of operant-conditioning consequence is maintaining Bob's selling?
Positive reinforcement
Lori has a glass of wine when she comes home every night because it relieves her unpleasant feelings of stress. Which operant-conditioning technique is maintaining Lori's drinking?
Negative reinforcement
Jeff won money in the state lottery after buying five tickets, then after buying six more tickets, then four more tickets (that is, after every fifth ticket, on average). Which reinforcement schedule maintains Jeff's ticket-buying behavior?
Variable ratio
Lucy whines when she doesn't get her way. Last monday, her mother refused to give in to her whining for five minutes before finally giving Lucy what she was demanding. On tuesday, her mother reisisted for 10 minutes before giving in. On Wednesday, she resisted for 20 minutes. Lucy is being taught to whine for longer and longer periods of time through...
shaping
Sally stopped hitting her brother when she saw a girl on a television show hit someone and then get in trouble for it. What type of learning on Sally's part does this illustrate?
Vicarious Learning
A rule of thumb strategy for solving problems is called a...
heuristic
After meeting Dave at a party, you decide he is shy. At several subsequent meeting, though, Dave is very outgoing. The idea that you're likely to continue believing Dave to be shy is called...
belief perseverance
A child saying "doll" while holding her hand out, as if expecting to be given the doll, would be an example of...
telegraphic speech
A child's ability to recognize speech sounds that aren't used in its language begins to dissapear during which stage of language development?
The babbling stage
Which of the following strategies should work best when studying for a test that's two weeks away?
Study for an hour every day for two weeks
Remembering how to get from your house to a friend's house, without consciously knowing how to do it, is an example of...
implicit memory
Lori is 10 years old and has done as well on an intelligence test as the average 8-year old. As originally calculated from the Stanford-Binet, what would Lori's IQ be?
80
Achievement tests...
measure learned skills or knowledge
Fixed and unlearned patterns of behavior that are characteristic of an entire species are called...
instincts
A need is...
a physiological condition that triggers motivation
All of the following are considered "Big Five" personality traiges EXCEPT
Cathexis (ones that are part- neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness)
The refractory period of the sexual response cycle...
is the time period following a male's orgasm during which he can be aroused to another orgasm.
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion...
one must be aware of one's physiological arousal in order to experience emotion.
After having three cups of strong coffee, you find that you're more angry than usual after being cut off in traffic, but you're also more scared than you would otherwise be when you hear someone walking behind you. Which theory of emotion explains why?
Two-factor theory
As a general rule, performance at a task is best when arousal is...
moderate
Charlie felt good about getting a C on his physics test until he found out that the average grade was a B. This change in the intensity of Charlie's happiness illustrates...
the relative-deprivation principle
Which of the following sequences of prenatal development stages is correct?
Zygote, embryo, fetus
Age being confounded with cohort will necessarily be a problem for which type of study?
Cross-sectional
Three year old Tim, who sees lots of horses on his family's farm, saw a zebra at the zoo and thought it was a horse. Which of the cognitive processes described by Piaget does this illustrate?
Assimilation
After Samantha's father sqashes the trash in the garbage can so that it takes up less space, Samantha thinks he's made the trash disappear. According to Piaget, why does she think so?
She isn't yet able to conserve mass
The emotional bond that infants feel toward caregivers is called...
attachment
According to Erikson, the primary task of adolescence is to....
develop an identity
A cashier gave Ken $10 too much in change, but Ken gave it back because he was afraid he might get caught and punished if he tried to keep it. Ken is in which of Kohlberg's moral stages?
Pre-conventional
When given a list of words to remember, older adults..
recall fewer, but recognize as many as younger adults.
The knowledge and verbal skills that one has acquired over one's life are referred to as...
crystallized intelligence
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of your personality that steers you toward socially acceptable behavior, even if it doesn't satisfy any needs, is called...
Superego
Homer loves his wife deeply, but he also can't stand the fact that she leaves their car dirty whenever she drives in and he wants to tell her about his anger. According to psychoanalytic theory, which part of Homer's personality can help him resolve the conflict between his wife and being angry at her?
Ego
If Darlene plays basketball as a way to vent her angry impulses in a socially acceptable way, which defense mechanism is being used?
Sublimation
Relatively unique patterns of behavior are...
traits
From Carl Rogers' humanistic perspective, the most important aspect of personality is...
the self
Laura is an outgoing woman, so she goes to lots of social events. Being at social events, she's encouraged by others to be outgoing. This pattern of expressing a trait and then having its expression reinforced by others, illustrates....
reciprocal determinism
Multiple-personality is a rare form of which category of psychological disorders?
Dissociative
Wally is 30 years old and lives at home with his parents. He frequently takes money out of his mother's purse, has killed a neighbor's cat for coming into his yard, and shoots at passing cars with a BB gun. He doesn't feel badly about any of this. Which personality disorder does Wally have?
Antisocial
Larry often feels nervous and anxious, but he doesn't know why. Occasionally, his heart will start pounding for no apparent reason and he'll break out in a cold sweat. Which disorder does Larry have?
Generalized anxiety
Lucy washes her hands every time she touches anything someone else has touched. She also runs dishes through the dishwasher several times in succession before putting them away. Which psychological disorder does Lucy have?
Obsessive-compulsive
Archie has been working at a car wash in Chicago for a month. He has a number of documents that say his real name is Luther Hunt and that he lives in Pittsburgh, has a wire and two kids, and has a job as a stockbroker. Archie remembers none of this. Which disorder does Archie have?
Dissociative fugue
Dave's mother occasionally has outbursts of uncontrollable behavior, but usually sits motionless in a chair. Dave once tried to help his mother feed herself by lifting her hand up to her mouth, but when he let go her hand remained in mid-air. Which form of schizophrenia does Dave's mother have?
Catatonic
Allison's parents fight constantly. They're loud and violent, and Allison hates it. One day she woke up to find that she could no longer hear. Which disorder does Allison have?
Conversion
Having a patient relax as much as possible and say whatever comes into his or her mind is central to the technique of...
free association
Tina wants desperately for her therapist to tell her that he'll take care of her and make sure she's always alright. These are things she wanted from her father, too, but was never able to tell him. Tina's fellings illustrate...
transference
Which therapeutic approach focuses on clients discovering their own ways to resolve their issues?
Client-centered
Systematic desensitization would involve...
associating relaxation with anxiety-arousing situations
Bill, who's depressed, recently succeeded in getting a job he very much wanted. A cognitive therapist would want Bill to attribute his success to..
Bill's own talent and ability
A first-grade teacher gives his students gold stars when they read on their own during classroom "free time". When they get 10 stars, they can spend their free time playing outside. What technique for behavior change is this teacher using?
A token economy
Which of these people is most likely to be prescribed Thorazine?
Gilda, who suffers from delusions of persecution
Karen insists that her boyfriend was late getting to her house because he never pays attention to what time it is. Karen's explanation of her boyfriend's behavior is an example of...
a dispositional attribution
The fundamental attribution error refers to the fact that people tend to underestimate the extent to which other's behavior is influenced by...
situational factors
Which of the following illustrates that our behavior can change our attitudes?
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon
When our behavior is inconsistent with our attitudes or values, we feel a tension called...
cognitive dissonance
Veronica is strongly in favor of serving liquor at the campus cafeteria. As part of a class debate on the topic, though, she freely generates arguments against serving liquor at the cafeteria. According to cognitive dissonance theory,....
Veronica will now be less in favor of serving liquor at the cafeteria
Individualistic cultures are likely to promote...
non-conformity
Social facilitation involves..
an individual performing better at a task when others are around.
Vera, Chuck, and Dave all think Paul is a relatively nice person. After talking together about why they think Paul is nice, though, they've all decided that Paul is so nice that he's one of the nicest persons on the planet. What is this phenomenon called?
Group polarization
High school kids often believe that their own high school is better than any of the neighboring high schools. This illustrates...
in-group bias
In a famous study, college freshmen were paired randomly with someone of the opposite sex for a "Welcome Week" dance. What determined most whether individuals like the person with whom they were paired?
Physical attractiveness
An aptitude test that is supposed to measure how well people will do in sales and marketing jobs successfully predicts how well those who take it will do as real estate agents. This test has a high degree of...
predictive validity
Each person who completed a 14-item personality test is given a total score for ratings of odd-numbered items, as well as a total score for even-numbered items. The correlation between those two sets of scores is then computed. This procedure would be used to assess...
split-half reliability
The most commonly occurring score in the distribution of scores is called..
the mode
In an experiment, the researcher manipulates teaching style in order to measure its effects on test scores for a biology class. It turns out that the average test score among subjects in the experimental group was 81 and the average score for subjects in the control group was 75. If that 6-point difference between those two groups were "statistically significant", what would that mean?
A difference as big as 6 points, or more, would be unlikely to happen by chance.