Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/115

Click to flip

115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Those who opposed ratification of the Constitution were called
Antifederalists
Which of the following events is placed in the INCORRECT year?

a. 1854 - Kansas/Nebraska Act
b. 1857 - Dred Scott decision
c. 1858 - Lincoln/Douglas debates
d. 1859 - John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry
e. 1861 - South Carolina secedes from the Union
e. 1861 - South Carolina secedes from the Union
Patroons were
Owners of large tracts of land in New Netherlands
The largest city in the Southern colonies was
Charleston
The American colonists were able to control the power of the Royal governors through what means?
The assemblies controlled all grants of money to be spent by the colonial governments.
"Popular sovereignty" meant that
the states would decide themselves whether to be slave or free.
Which of the following served as president of the Confederate States of America?

a. Robert E. Lee
b. John C. Calhoun
c. Robert Y. Hayne
d. Jefferson Davis
e. Alexander H. Stephens
d. Jefferson Davis
Which of the following did NOT experience a Gold Rush after 1859?

a. Nevada
b. Alaska
c. South Dakota
d. California
e. Colorado
d. California
What nationality group introduced the log cabin to the American colonies?
Swedes
The Treaty of Paris was signed in
1783
Describe the attitude of Lincoln and Johnson toward Reconstruction
They saw the Civil War as a rebellion of individuals.
According to the Constitution as passed in 1787 and ratified in 1789, a slave was equal to what fraction of a citizen for purposes of representation?
3/5
What Union general emerged to prominence in the Western theatre of the Civil War?
Ulysses S. Grant
Which of the following was NOT a prominent critic of slavery?

a. Hinton Rowan Helper
b. Harriet Beecher Stowe
c. William Lloyd Garrison
d. John C. Calhoun
e. Frederick Douglass
d. John C. Calhoun
The most influential of the organized religious philosphies produced by eighteenth century rationalism and humanism was
Unitarianism
The Alien and Sedition Acts included all of the following EXCEPT:

a. increasing the residency requirements for U.S. citzenship.
b. extended presidential powers to remove foreign residents of the United States.
c. a threat to the jury system.
d. restriction of an opposition press.
e. the curtailment of free speech in America.
c. a threat to the jury system.
In respons to the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts by the Federalist Congress, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
drafted the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions which supported the concept of states' rights.
At the Hartford Convention the
Federalists proposed a constitutional amendment which would restrict the president to a single term and would prohibit successive presidents from the same state.
The doctrine of nullification put forth by John C. Calhoun in The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, published anonymously in 1828, held that
if a state judged a federal law to violate the Constitution, the state could declare the law null and void within its borders.
Which of the following authors is correctly paired with the work that he wrote?

a. Herman Melville: The Sketch Book
b. James Fenimore Cooper: conspiracy of Pontiac
c. Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter
d. Washington Irving: The Raven
e. Edgar Allen Poe: The House of the Seven Gables
c. Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter
Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, and Nat Turner were leaders of
Unsuccessful slave revolts in the Southern states.
In general, most Europeans considered the Indians to be
heathens who were inferior beings.
The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 resulted in all of the following EXCEPT:

a. increased profitableness of farming in the Old Northwest.
b. encouraging the emigration of European immigrants and New England farmers to the Old Northwest.
c. forcing many New Englanders either to abandon their farms or to switch to dairy, fruit, and vegetable farming.
d. a weakened political alliance between the farmers of the Old Northwest and the planters of the South.
e. strengthening the dependency of farmers in the Old Northwest on the Mississippi River system for access to markets.
e. strengthing the dependency of farmers in the Old Northwest on the Mississippi River system for access to markets.
Pocahontas....
Was taken captive by an English trader and held as a hostage at Jamestown. Was converted to Christianity at her own request. Married John Rolfe, and she died in England.
The trial of John Peter Zenger in 1735 for seditious libel
Encouraged editors to be more critical of public officials.
Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense introduced a new element into the debate with Britain by
Calling for complete independence of the colonies and attacking not only King George III but also the idea of monarchy.
New York was an English colony because the
English conquered the area from the Dutch.
The Scotch-Irish immigrants to the English colonies in Noth America...
Felt little loyalty to either the English government or the Anglican church. They came in large numbers in the century due to deteriorating conditions in the Irish woolens industry. Generally settled on the frontier where they demonstrated a remarkable degree of resourcefulness, rugged individuality, and self-reliance.
Most of the slave who came to the 13 mainland colonies in British North America
Were considered to be property and as such could be used as collateral for loans.
The Battle of Saratoga resulted in
The French formally recognizing American independence and making an open treaty of alliance with the Americans
The new state constitutions adopted during the American Revolution
generally protected the people's civil liberties with a bill of rights.
In responding to Senator Robert Y. Hayne's defense of the South Carolina Exposition, who rebutted: "When my eyes shall be turned to behold for the last time, the sun in heaven, let their last feeble glance behold the gorgeous ensign of the republic not a stripe erased nor a single star obscured, bearing for its motto, that sentiment dear to every true American heart --Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!"?
Daniel Webster
The Connecticut Compromise advocated by Roger Sherman proposed settling the issue of representation in Congress by
Giving each state two senators, with the vote in the Senate to be by individuals and not states. Apportioning representation in the House of Representatives according to population.
While Chief Justice John Marshall presided over the Supreme Court, its decisions
laid the groundwork for a "broad" interpretation of the Constitution.
George Washington responded to the Whiskey Rebellion in the western counties of Pennsylvania by
Sending an army larger than any he had ever commanded in the Revolution to put down the revolt.
The purchase of the Louisiana territory
Doubled the size of the United States. Guaranteed Western farmers access to the Mississippi River as an avenue of trade. Presented Jefferson with a constitutional dilemma since he was a "strict" constructionist. Gave the United States control of the port of New Orleans.
The Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842
Was concerned in part with the joint Anglo-American efforts to suppress the African slave trade.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Reopened the intense sectional controversy over the question of slavery in the territories.
The ultimate goal of Andrew Jackson's policy toward the Indians during his presidency was to
Remove them to lands in the trans-Mississippi West.
Andrew Jackson defended his policy of "rotation in office" which became known as the "spoils system" by asserting that
A man should serve a term in office then return to the status of private citizen. Men who held office too long became corrupted by a sense of power. Political appointments by newly elected officials promoted democracy.
"For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies."

In the above passage, Thomas Jefferson indicts King George III and Parliament for the
Quebec Act
William Lloyd Garrison persuaded the American Anti-Slavery Society to endorse the concept of
Immediate Emancipation
In the presidential election of 1860,
The Democratic party factionalized and nominated two candidates.
The election evolved into a contest between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in the North, and John C. Breckinridge and John Bell in the South.
Abraham Lincoln won less than 50 percent of the popular vote.
No candidate received a majority of the popular vote.
When the Civil War started, Abraham Lincoln's primary objective was
To preserve the Union.
The radical abolitionists who appeared in the early 1830s viewed slavery as
A great moral evil.
Both President Andrew Johnson's plan for Reconstruction and that of Congress required the former Confederate states to
Draft new state constitutions.
Most of the decimation of the Indian population in the Americas during the sixteenth century resulted from
European diseases.
All of the following were responsible for the development of Western European expansion in the fifteenth century EXCEPT:

a. the desire to break the monpoly of the Italian states on trade with Asia.
b. Advances in navigational knowledge and ship design.
c. The emergence of nation-states.
d. An ideology that claimed superiority for the Europeans and inferiority for the other peoples.
e. Thomas Malthus' theory that the population of Western Europe would eventually outstrip its food supply.
e. Thomas Malthus' theory that the population of Western Europe would eventually outstrip its foold supply.
The first permanent English colony in North America was
The Jamestown colony, developed by the Virginia Company.
The proposed Constitution, so far from implying an abolition of the State governments, makes them constituent parts of the national sovereignty, by allowing them a direct representation in the Sentate, and leaves in their possession certain exclusive and very important portions of sovereign power.

The above passage is most likely to be found in...
Hamilton, Madison, and Jay's "The Federalist Papers"
The proposed Constitution, so far from implying an abolition of the State governments, makes them constituent parts of the national sovereignty, by allowing them a direct representation in the Sentate, and leaves in their possession certain exclusive and very important portions of sovereign power.

The author wants primarily to convince readers that...
The U.S. Constitution would preserve the rights and powers of the states.
The Maryland Toleration Act of 1649 provided for
The tolerance of most Christian churches.
The colony founded as a haven for Quakers was
Pennsylvania
The French and Indian War resulted in all of the following EXCEPT:

a. New lands in the trans-Mississippi West were opened to the colonists.
b. Colonists began thinking of themselves as Americans rather than English or British.
c. Spain gained control of Louisiana.
d. The treaty ending the war eliminated the French from the American colonial frontier.
e. The myth of British invincibility was shattered.
a. New lands in the trans-Mississippi West were opened to the colonists.
The important staple for export in colonial Virginia was
Tobacco
The colony established by James Oglethorpe as a refuge for honest people imprisoned for debt was
Georgia
The fundamental goal of mercantilism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was
To limit foreign imports and encourage a favorable balance of trade.
At the close of the American Revolution, a group of American writers and artists sought to establish a destinctly American national culture. Which of the following artists does not belong to this movement?

a. Noah Webster
b. Philip Freneau
c. Hector St. Jean Crevecoeur
d. Cotton Mather
e. Joel Barlow
d. Cotton Mather
President John Adams' "Midnight Appointments" was the primary issue in the Supreme Court's ruling in
Marbury v. Madison
Chief Justice John Marhsall established the power of judicial review for the Supreme Court in 1803. This doctrine grants
The power of the Court to determine what the laws of America are.
"We prefer war to the putrescent pool of ignominous peace," best represents the attitudes of which group during the War of 1812?
Henry Clay and Westerners
The primary goal of the Hartford Convention was to
Assert a doctrine of states' rights.
The fragility of the Era of Good Feelings was shattered by the
Missouri Compromise
The American population grew from _______ million in 1820 to ________ million in 1850
9 million to 23 million
During the 1820s, the ideal American family was portrayed as a family in which
The home served as a refuge from a hostile world.
The children were the center.
There existed separate spheres for men and women.
The mother primarily was responsible for raising the children.
The Tariff Act of 1832 resulted in
Near war between the United States and South Carolina.
A rift between President Jackson and Vice President Calhoun.
The revival of a states' rights doctrine.
A compromise solution proposed by Henry Clay.
The American Colonization Society was an antislavery organization that
Advocated the forced shipment of freed slaves to Africa.
The vast majority of Southern slaves lived on plantations holding
Less than 20 slaves.
The doctrine of Manifest Destiny argued that
It was America's natural right to occupy all lands to the Pacific coast.
The American economy needed new lands for new markets.
America should remain first and foremost a nation of farmers.
The nation needed new lands to safeguard democracy.
Which of the following events occured first?

a. Kansas-Nebraska Act
b. Nat Turner Rebellion
c. Seneca Falls Convention
d. Lincoln-Douglas debates
e. Homestead Act
b. Nat Turner Rebellion
"I wish to speak today, not as a Massachusetts man, nor as a Northern man, but a an American for the preservation of the Union." Daniel Webster delivered this speech in defense of
The Compromise of 1850
Stephen Douglas' advocacy of popular sovereignty in the Kansas-Nebraska Act ignited rather than dispelled the flames of sectionalism. Popular sovereignty sought to
Let the residents of Kansas-Nebraska areas determine their own laws on slavery through elections.
The "Secret Six" were the financial supporters of
John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry
The final four states to secede from the United States after the firing on Fort Sumter were
Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina
During the Civil War, the Copperheads were
Northern anti-war Democrats
The Southern strategy of gaining a European ally against the North was attempted through a policy referred to as
King Cotton Diplomacy
The Great Plains Indian culture can best be described in the 1840s as
Nomadic
Centered around the buffalo
At its zenith
Animistic in its reverence for the spiritual power of nature.
Lincoln's Reconstruction plan for the defeated Southern states included all of the following EXCEPT:

a. abolition of slavery
b. free education for the ex-slaves
c. republican state governments
d. a required 10 percent of all voters in a state to take a loyalty oath to the United States.
e. citizenship for the ex-slaves
e. citizenship for the ex-slaves
The Wade-Davis Bill best represents the views of
The Radical Republicans
The Thirteenth Amendment established
The legal end of slavery in America
In trying to impeach President Andrew Johnson, Congress used the
Tenure of Office Act
Thomas Nast achieved fame and influence as a
Political cartoonist
Which of the following is true of the Stamp Act Congress?

a. It was the first unified government for all the american colonies.
b. It provided an important opportunity for colonial stamp agents to discuss methods of enforcing the act.
c. It was attended only by Georgia, Virginia, and the Carolinas.
d. It provided an important opportunity for colonial leaders to meet and establish ties with one another.
e. It rejected the assertion that the colonies ought to protest acts of Parliament deemed to be unconstitutional.
d. It provided an important opportunity for colonial leaders to meet and establish ties with one another.
The principle of "popular sovereignty" was
A central feature of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
In issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, one of Lincoln's goals was to
Keep Britain and France from intervening on the side of the Confederacy.
The most common form of resistance on the part of black American slaves prior to the Civil War was
Passive resistance, including breaking tools and slightly slowing the pace of work.
Which of the following best describes the attitudes of Southern whites toward slavery during the mid-ninteenth century(ca. 1835-1865)?
Slavery was a benefit to both whites and blacks.
For farmers and planters in the South, the 1850s was a period of
High crop prices and sustained prosperity.
The economic theory of mercantilism would be consistent with the following statement:
A government should seek to direct the economy so as to maximize exports.
In seeking diplomatic recognition from foreign powers during the War for Independence, the American government found it necessary to
Demonstrate a determination and potential to win independence.
William Lloyd Garrison, in his publication The Liberator, was outspoken in calling for
Immediate and uncompensated emancipation of slaves.
The immediate issue in dispute in Bacon's Rebellion was
The perceived failure of Virginia's governor to protect the colony's frontier area from the depredations of raiding Indians.
The Newburgh Conspiracy was concerned with
The use of the Continental Army to create a more centralized Union of the states.
The Wilmot Proviso stipulated that
Slavery should be prohibited in the lands acquired as a result of the Mexican War.
The Whig party turned against President John Tyler because
He opposed the entire Whig legislative program.
In coining the phrase "Manifest Destiny," journalist John L. O'Sullivan meant that
It was the destiny of America to overspread the continent.
All of the following were causes of the Mexican War EXCEPT:

a. American desire for California.
b. Mexican failure to pay debts and damages owed to the U.S.
c. U.S. annexation of the formerly Mexican-held Republic of Texas.
d. Mexican desire to annex Louisiana.
e. the disputed southern boundary of Texas.
d. Mexican desire to annex Louisiana.
The primary motive of those who founded the British colony of Virginia during the seventeenth century was the
Desire for economic gain.
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan...
Porvided for the restoration of loyal governments for the erst-while Confederate states now under Union control.
All of the following were parts of Andrew Johnson's plan for Reconstruction EXCEPT:

a. recommending to the Southern states that the vote be extended to the recently freed slaves.
b. requiring ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.
c. requiring payment of monetary reparations for the damage caused by the war.
d. requiring renunciation of secession.
e. requiring repudiation of the Confederate debt.
c. Requiring payment of monetary reparations for the damage caused by the war.
The term "Seward's Folly" referred to Secretary of State William Seward's
Negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia.
In response to southern intransigence in the face of President Andrew Johnson's mild Reconstruction plan, Congress did all of the following EXCEPT:

a. exclude Southern representatives and senators from participating in Congress.
b. pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
c. order the arrest and imprisonment of former Confederate leaders.
d. approve and send on to the states the Fourteenth Amendment.
e. divide the South into five districts to be ruled by military governors with almost dictatorial powers.
c. Order the arrest and imprisonment of former Confederate leaders.
When President Andrew Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton without the approval of the Senate, contrary to the terms of the recently passed Tenure of Office Act, he
Was impeached and came within one vote of being removed from office.
The purpose of the Treaty of Tordesillas was
To divide the non-European world between Spain and Portugal.
During the 1760s and 1770s the most effective American tactic in gaining the repeal of the Stamp and Townshend Acts was
Boycotting British goods.
One of the purposes of the 1773 Tea Act was to
Save the British East India Company from financial ruin.
During the American War of Independence, the Battle of Saratoga was most significant because it
Persuaded France to begin openly supporting the Americans.
Besides mass production through the use of interchangeable parts, Eli Whitney also influenced American history by his invention of the
Cotton gin.
The Republican response to the 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts included
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
The Puritans who settled the Massachusetts Bay colony wanted their settlement to be primarily
An example to the rest of the world.
The Missouri Compromise provided that Missouri be admitted as a slave state, Maine be admitted as a free state, and
All of the Louisiana Territory north of 36'30' be closed to slavery.
The Morrill Land Grant Act provided
Large amounts of federal government land to states that would establish agricultural and mechanical colleges.
All of the following reflect the views of Americans expressed by Alexis de Tocqueville and other early nineteenth century European visitors EXCEPT:

a. daily life in America was highly politicized.
b. American exhibited a strong sense of national pride.
c. Americans were highly individualistic.
d. Americans exhibited a strong sense of social deference.
e. Americans valued personal freedom.
d. Americans exhibited a strong sense of social deference.
Noah Webster, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and James Fenimore Cooper were all significant as
Contributors to a more distinctly American literature.
The Molasses Act was intended to enforce England's mercantilist policies by
Forcing the colonists to buy sugar from other British colonies rather than from foreign producers.