Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
All of the following were early explorers of North America EXCEPT:

a. Francisco Coronado
b. Robert La Salle
c. Samuel de Champlain
d. Francisco Pizarro
e. Jacques Marquette
d. Francisco Pizarro
Which of the following best characterizes Southern society before the Civil War?

a. Half of the slaveowners owned five or fewer slaves.
b. Most white families owned slaves.
c. Most slaveowners owned several hundred slaves.
d. The percentage of slaveowners was consistent throughout the South.
e. Most slaveowners lived in urban areas.
a. Half of the slaveowners owned five or fewer slaves.
Between 1806 and 1809 nonimportation, nonintercourse, and embargo sought to
force Great Britain to recognize American rights
What was the first important means of transportation in the United States after independence?
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 did all of the following EXCEPT:

a. bring Maine as a free state.
b. bring in Missouri as a slave state.
c. prohibit slavery north of latitude 36'30'.
d. maintain the balance of slave and free states.
e. establish the principle of popular sovereignty south of 36'30'.
e. establish the principle of popular sovereignty south of 36'30'.
The Declaration of Independence stated that
people have the right to abolish governments destructive of their rights.
According to the Treaty of Paris of 1783, the boundaries of the United States were
Canada, Florida, and the Mississippi River.
In 1858 at Freeport, Illinois, Stephen Douglas argued that
slavery could be kept out of the territories if people in the territories failed to pass laws to protect it.
Which of the following was NOT involved in the "triangular trade" of the colonial period?

a. Rum
b. Molasses
c. Cotton
d. Slaves
e. Tobacco
c. Cotton
Those who supported ratification of the Constitution were called
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses Grant at
The French and Indian War took place during
1754 - 1763
Colonial law generally defined slaves as chattel. This meant that slaves were considered as
pieces of property with no rights
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 introduced what ideas?
Individual states could nullify or set aside federal laws with which they disagreed.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 established
the office of attorney general
Alexander Hamilton's legislative program for the new republic included all of the following EXCEPT:

a. the Bank of the United States.
b. organization of the federal judiciary.
c. assumption of Confederation and state debts.
d. promotion of domestic manufacturing.
e. a system of excise taxes
b. organization of the federal judiciary.
The leading scientist in colonial America was
Benjamin Franklin
Which of the following correctly describes women's rights in mid-nineteenth century America?

a. A married woman controlled her own property.
b. Husbands were forbidden to beat their wives.
c. Women could freely enter professions such as medicine and law.
d. Women could not claim money they had earned.
e. Women had the right to vote in federal elections.
d. Women could not claim money they had earned.
Under Lincoln's plan of Reconstruction, Southern states could resume their part in the Union after
10 percent of the voters as of 1860 took an oath of allegiance.
Which of the following was NOT characteristic of pre-Civil War American cities?

a. Rapidly rising death rates
b. Increase of crime
c. Extensive sewer systems
d. Growth of slums
e. Increase of population
c. Extensive sewer systems
The first armed conflict in 1775 between the Americans and British soliers took place at
By opening the territory north of 36'30' to slavery, the Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the
Missouri Compromise
By February 1, 1861 which group of states had seceded from the Union?
Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, South Carolina
In 1819 the United States obtained Florida from
Which of the following does NOT describe the Louisiana Purchase of 1803?

a. The United States purchased Louisiana from France for $15 million.
b. Jefferson expanded the powers of the presidency.
c. French power expanded in the Western Hemisphere.
d. The Untied States doubled in size.
e. The treaty of cession left some of the boundaries vague.
c. French power expanded in the Western Hemisphere.
Define "cession"
a yielding to another
Define "seceded"
to withdraw from an organization (as a religious communion or political party or federation)
What territory gained independence in 1836?
The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 protested
a 25 percent tax on whiskey
Which of the following best describes the First Bank of the United States?

a. It was solely a private business enterprise.
b. It was solely a federal government enterprise.
c. It was a join private-public enterprise.
d. It was a joint state-federal government enterprise.
e. It was a joint state-private enterprise.
c. It was a joint private-public enterprise.
The Puritans wanted to
build a society based upon biblical teachings
The Federal Constitution
counted 3/5 of slaves for purposes of representation
Historians believe the British trade regulations during the colonial period
provided both advantages and disadvantages for the American colonies
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established what precedent for new territories?
Equality of new states with old
The American Revolutionaries gained help from which country?
In the controversy over the lands belonging by treaty to the "Five Civilized Tribes,", the Jackson administration
forced the Indians to be removed to the West
Which of the following statements best describes the ethnic makeup of colonial America?

a. French Huguenots settled heavily in New England.
b. Germans concentrated in Pennsylvania.
c. The Scotch-Irish moved into the southern tidewater area.
d. Maryland was largely a Dutch-dominated colony.
e. Spanish and Portuguese Jews settled in the Appalachian backcounty.
b. Germans concentrated in Pennsylvania.
After what year was there little criticism of slavery within the South?
What was a response to the Stamp Act?
Nonimportation of British goods
The American public protested the Jay Treaty of 1794 because it
did nothing about British seizure of American vessels in the French West Indies.
Which of the following served as a Union general?

a. Joseph Johnston
b. Thomas Jackson
c. William T. Sherman
d. Robert E. Lee
e. J.E.B. Stuart
c. William T. Sherman
The central compromise of the Constitutional Convention involved the issue of
representation of large and small states.
Which of the following was NOT a cause of the Panic of 1837?

a. The building up of surpluses in the nation's factories
b. Destruction of the Second Bank of the United States
c. Overextension of bank credit
d. A poor wheat crop
e. The Specie Circular of 1836
a. The building up of surpluses in the nation's factories
The Specie Circular issued by President Andrew Jackson and his treasury secretary, Levi Woodbury, on July 11, 1836, required payment in gold or silver for all purchases of government lands. The Jackson administration believed that the Circular would check the boom in speculative land purchases that had resulted from Jackson's "war" against the Second Bank of the United States. The president had withdrawn government deposits from the Bank and then deposited the money in numerous state "pet banks." Distribution of the deposits allowed these banks to lend more money, based on their new reserves. With easy credit available, sales of government lands skyrocketed from $2.6 million in 1832 to $24.9 million in 1836. Large speculators rather than homesteaders bought most of this land.

Many state banks, however, loaned more money than their newfound reserves could justify and were threatened with bankruptcy. Jackson, who had once lost his fortune in a bank failure, wanted to bring the situation under control by promulgating the Specie Circular. He chose a poor method. The deflationary Circular contracted the money supply too rapidly, leading in part to the panic of 1837.
Which Supreme Court chief justice oversaw the development of the Court's power to judge the constitutionality of acts of Congress?
John Marshall
Who opposed rechartering the Second Bank of the United States?
Andrew Jackson
Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress lacked the power to
In the election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln won
the Northern and Midwestern states
Which of the following groups tended to support the Federalists?

a. Small farmers
b. Small businessmen
c. Wealthy merchants
d. Baptist and Methodist ministers
e. Skilled craftsmen
c. Wealthy merchants
Prior to 1763 the British policy of "salutary neglect"
Did not enforce the Navigation Acts.
What do Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, and Nat Turner have in common?
They organized slave rebellions
The Marbury v. Madison decision of 1803 established the principle that
the Supreme Court had the power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
The Pinckney Treaty with Spain in 1795 gave Americans the "right of deposit" at New Orleans. This meant that
Americans could land goods at New Orleans and ship them out again without paying taxes.
American factory workers of the pre-Civil War period
worked long hours
Which of the following books was likely to be found in the home of a colonial New Englander?
Pilgrim's Progress
The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863
freed slaves in areas still in rebellion.
The Proclamation of 1763
Ordered that settlement be stopped west of the peaks of the Appalachians.
The Nullification Controversy of 1828 to 1833 arose in response to congressional support for
Protective tariffs
Debate over ratification of the Constitution in New York resulted in the publication of
The Federalist Papers.
Who helped guide the Lewis and Clark expedition and aided in dealing with the Indians?
Which of the following was part of the Compromise of 1850?
A new fugitive slave law
Common Sense was written by
Thomas Paine
An indentured servant differed from a slave in that he or she
worked for a limited period of time, usually seven years to repay their passage to America.
Alexander Hamilton believed that the United States should
Assume the debts of both the Confederation and the states.
The Bill of Rights guarantees all of the following EXCEPT:

a. the freedom of religion.
b. the right to a fair trial.
c. powers not delegated to the federal government by the Constitution are reserved to the states.
d. the right to bear arms.
e. the right of women to vote.
e. The right of women to vote.
The followers of Andrew Jackson established what political party?
Beginning in the 1830s, William Lloyd Garrison called for
Immediate emancipation of the slaves.
The Great Awakening of the 1740s resulted in
A split between religious traditionalists and religious radicals.
George Washington's army faced what problems during the American Revolution?
The army was dependent on poorly trained militia.
Which of the following was NOT a major writer of the pre-Civil War period?

a. Ralph Waldo Emerson
b. William Dean Howells
c. Nathaniel Hawthorne
d. Herman Melville
e. Washington Irving
b. William Dean Howells
According to the Dred Scott decision,
Congress had no power over slavery in the territories.
Which of the following was NOT a Northern advantage in the Civil War?

a. It was fighting a defensive war.
b. It had greater manufacturing capacity.
c. It owned greater railroad trackage.
d. It had a larger population.
e. The mountain chains ran north and south.
a. It was fighting a defensive war.
Which of the following does NOT apply to the Monroe Doctrine?

a. It forbade Spain from attempting to restore control over its former colonies in the Western Hemisphere.
b. It was based upon the assumption that the British navy would defend the principles of the Doctrine.
c. It allowed the United States to take action in European affairs.
d. It blocked a possible move by Russia to possess the Pacific Coast.
e. It allowed European nations to use force of arms in order to collect debts from Latin American nations.
c. It allowed the United States to take action in European affairs.
A revolution in what country made American neutrality an issue in the 1790s?
The Confederacy raised money for their war effort by all of the following EXCEPT:

a. borrowing money from abroad.
b. raising taxes.
c. printing money.
d. establishing an income tax.
e. borrowing money from its citizens.
d. Establishing an income tax.
The Constitutional Convention took place in
The colonial South was divided into all of the following EXCEPT:

a. the Piedmont
b. the Great Plains
c. the backcountry
d. the Tidewater
e. the Fall Line
b. the Great Plains
The "Intolerable Acts" of 1774 included all of the following EXCEPT:

a. the closing of Boston Harbor.
b. new taxes on glass, tea, lead, and paper.
c. making the Massachusetts council and judiciary appointive.
d. allowing trials of accused colonial officials to be moved to England.
e. authorizing the governor to limit town meetings to as few as one a year.
b. new taxes on glass, tea, lead, and paper.
According to the Constitution, the president is chosen by
the electoral college
Which of the following did NOT take place during the Grant presidency?

a. John Wesley Powell's exploration of the Grand Canyon
b. Last federal troops removed from the South
c. Settlement of the Alabama claims
d. Completion of the first transcontinental railroad
e. Credit Mobilier Scandal
b. Last federal troops removed from the South
The "Revolution of 1800" resulted in the election of
Thomas Jefferson
The term "Middle Colonies" refers to what grouping of states?
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware
Which battle effectively ended the American Revolution?
The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution
allowed a state to limit the voting of blacks.
Which of the following does NOT describe colonial government in America?

a. During the 1700s the assemblies became more powerful.
b. In royal colonies the governor could summon or dismiss the assembly.
c. Compared with England, the right to vote was limited to a few individuals.
d. The assemblies controlled the raising and spending of tax money.
e. In proprietary colonies the proprietor appointed the governor.
c. Compared with England, the right to vote was limited to a few individuals.
The War of 1812 resulted in what?
Resumption of the status quo prior to the war
Article I of the U.S. Constitution establishes
the powers of Congress
In order for a treaty to become law, the ________ must ratify the treaty after it has been negotiated by the ________
The first presidential election that relied upon the popular vote to select the electoral college was held in
The American commitment to the "unalienable rights" of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" is most clearly expressed in
the Declaration of Independence
The Mayflower Compact of 1620 established
Plymouth colony
On the eve of Columbus' first arrival in 1492, the native Indian population of the Western Hemisphere is estimated at
80-100 million
Columbus untertook his 1492 voyage to the Americas to
secure wealth and power for himself and the Spanish throne.
Jamestown survived as the first permanent English settlement in America because
of the emergence of tobacco as a cash crop.
Roger Williams is best known in American history as
an early champion of religious freedom.
Indentured servants in colonial America experienced
low social status
During the seventeenth century, black slaves in the Southern colonies
grew slowly as a labor force
The Dominion of New England was
an attempt to reorganize the British Empire by James II.
William Penn's plans for a Quaker colony in Pennsylvania included all of the following EXCEPT:

a. establishing peaceful relations with the Indians.
b. allowing for religious freedom.
c. establishing a democracy.
d. the making of an economic profit.
e. establishing a colony loyal to Great Britain.
establishing a deomocracy
At the close of the Seven Years' War in 1763, France ceded to Great Britain
England passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to
raise money to reduce England's national debt.
The eighteenth century population in British North America
nearly doubled every 25 years.
All of the following are major figures in the Enlightenment EXCEPT:

a. Benjamin Franklin
b. William Bradford
c. John Locke
d. Sir Issac Newton
e. Thomas Jefferson
b. William Bickford
After the American Revolution, the Loyalists did NOT
create their own American colony in Ohio.
The Articles of Confederation created for the 13 states
A league of friendship among 13 independent countries
During the winter of 1786, Shays' Rebellion indicated to most Americans
The political dangers of the post-war recession.
The weaknesses of state government.
The need to reform the Articles of Confederation.
The desperation of the yeoman farmer in America.
In seventeenth century New England, married women were denied the right to
vote for elected officials.
The passage of the Declaratory Act in 1766 by Parliament was greeted in America by
little attention to its statement of parliamentary sovereignty.
During the Washington administration, the secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton, proposed an economic program which included all of the following EXCEPT:

a. establishing close ties between the national government and American business.
b. establishing a national bank.
c. having the states pay off the total war debt.
d. imposing new taxes through customs duties and excise taxes.
e. retiring the full national debt but maintaining deficit government spending.
e. retiring the full national debt but maintaining deficit government spending.
During the 1790s, Federalists and Republicans openly disagreed over

a. the extent of popular control of government.
b. foreign policy toward England and France.
c. the activities of Citizen Genet.
d. the fiscal policies of the national government.
e. All of the above.
e. All of the above.