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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What flap is reserved for correction of the central palate?
Pharyngeal flap
What muscle is used to create a pharyngeal flap?
Levator veli palatini
What flap is used to create a functional philtrum?
Abbe flap
What is the pedicle of an Abbe flap?
Submucosal labial artery of lower lip
When should an Abbe flap be divided?
10 days to 4 weeks
How big should an Abbe flap be?
No wider than 10mm and no longer than 15mm
Which flap is a transposition flap derived from the nasolabial crease?
Nasolabial flap
What is the origin of the levator veli palatini?
Petrous portion of temporal bone and the eustachian tube
What is the function of the levator veli palatini?
Elevates the velum toward the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the velopharyngeal mechanism and pull the eustachian tube open
Which muscle creates a muscular sling critical to palate functioning?
Levator veli palatini
A cleft lip is formed embryologically by failure of fusion of what structures?
Medial nasal prominence and maxillary prominence
Macrostomia results from failure of fusion of what embryologic structures?
maxillary and mandibular prominences
Primary cleft palate results from failure of fusion of what embryologic structures?
Median and lateral palatine processes
Secondary cleft palate results from failure of fusion of what embryologic structures?
Lateral palatine processes with each other and nasal septum (medial nasal prominences)
Describe the findings of cleft nasal deformity in a complete unilateral cleft lip
Ala is displaced laterally, inferiorly and posteriorly.
What embryologic structure forms the nasal alae?
Lateral nasal process
The medial nasal process gives rise to what structures?
Columella, nasal tip, philtrum and premaxilla
The bridge and root of nose arise from what embryologic structure?
Frontonasal process
Describe the findings in the Pierre-Robin sequence
Micrognathia, glossoptosis and respiratory distress
What is the cause of the respiratory distress found in the Pierre-Robin sequence?
What is the initial management of respiratory distress in Pierre-Robin sequence?
Prone positioning. Intubate if that is not effective
What percentage of patients with Pierre-Robin sequence have a high arched cleft in midline of soft palate?
What surgical procedures are useful in the secondary management of Pierre-Robin sequence?
Tongue-lip adhesion, tracheostomy, mandibular distraction
Unrepaired alveolar clefts result in what type of malocclusion?
Posterior crossbite
What is the function of the palatoglossus muscle?
Pulls soft palate downward
Describe the anatomic course of the palatoglossus muscle
Arises from the lateral margin of the tongue, travels in the anterior tonsillar pillar and enters the soft palate
Describe the anatomic course of the tensor veli palatini
Descends from skull base adjacent to eustachian tube, courses around the hamulus of the pterygoid then forms a broad aponeurosis with the contralateral muscle within the soft palate.
Describe the anatomic course of the superior pharyngeal constrictor
Originates from the posterior pharyngeal raphe and courses downward and forward to insert into the medial ptergomandibular raphe and the posterior part of the hyoid
Describe the anatomic course of the stylopharyngeus muscle
Arises from the styloid process, inserts between the fibers of the superior and middle pharyngeal muscles in the pharyngeal wall
What is the function of the stylopharyngeal muscles?
They play a role in swallowing.
Muscles involved in normal velopharyngeal closure are. . .
Levator palatini, palatopharyngeus, superior pharyngeal constrictors and uvulus