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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
FOUR PRIMARY TISSUE TYPES
Epithelium
Connective Tissue
Nervous Tissue
Muscle
CONNECTIVE TISSUE - BONES
bone or osseous tissue, they protect and support other body tissues and organs
HISTOLOGY
The study of tissues
CONNECTIVE TISSUE - LIGAMENTS AND TENDONS
dense connective tissue - bind the bones together or bind skeletal muscles to bones
EPITHELIAL FUNCTIONS
Include protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, and sensory reception
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
-thick membrane composed of several cell layers
-protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
-forms the moist linings of the mouth, esophagus
ORGANS
To perform specific body functions
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
lose their surface connection (duct) as they develop; thus they are referred to as ductless glands. Their secretions (all hormones) are extruded directly into the blood or the lymphatic vessels that weave through the glands
TISSUE
groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
PRIMARY FUNCTION OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES
primarily protect, support and bind together other tissues of the body
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
(EPITHELIUM)
Covers surfaces
EPITHELIAL TISSUE - POLARITY
The membranes always have one free surface, called the apical surface
NERVOUS TISSUE
composed of two major cell populations, neuroglia and neurons
EPITHELIAL TISSUE - SUPPORTED BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE
The cells are attached to and supported by an adhesive basement membrane, which is an amorphous material secreted partly by the epithelial cells (basal lamina) and connective tissue cells (reticular lamina) that lie adjacent to each other
CARTILAGE
ELASTIC CARTILAGE
-similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in matrix
-maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility
-supports the external ear
CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIA ON BASIS OF ARRANGEMENT
- simple epithelia, consisting of one layer of cells attached to the basement membrane
- strativied epithelia, consisting of two or more layers of cells
CARTILAGE
FIBROCARTILAGE
-matrix similar but less firm than in hyaline cartilage
-tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock
-intervertebral discs
CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER-
LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
ADIPOSE TISSUE
-matrix as in areolar, but very sparse
-provides reserve food fuel, insulates against heat loss, supports & protects organs
-in breasts
OTHER CONNECTIVE TISSUE
BLOOD
-red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)
-transport of respiratory gases, nuitrients, wastes and other substances
-contained within blood vessels
STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
-general two layers of cubelike cells
-protection
-largest ducts of salivary glands
MUSCLE TISSUE - CARDIAC
-branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions
-as it contracts, it propels blood into the ciruclation
-involuntary control
-the walls of the heart
CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER-
LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
AREOLAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE
-gel like matrix with all three fiber types and cells
-wraps and cusions organs
-widely distributed under epithelia of body
MUSCLE TISSUE - SKELETAL
-long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells; obvious striations
-voluntary movement
-in skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM
-single layer of cubelike cells
-secretion & absorption
-kidney tubules
MUSCLE TISSUE - THREE BASIC TYPES
skeletal muscle
cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
EPITHELIAL TISSUE - REGENERATION
If well nourished, epithelial cells can easily regenerate themselves. This is an important characteristic because many epithelia are subjected to a good deal of friction
CARTILAGE
HYALINE CARTILAGE
-amorphous but firm matrix
-supports and reinforces
-forms costal cartilages of the ribs
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
-single layer of flattened cells
-allows passage of materials by diffusion & filtration
-air sacs of lungs
NERVOUS TISSUE - NEUROGLIA
special supporting cells that protect, support and insulate the more delicate neurons
EMBRYONIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE
-mesenchyme
-gel like ground substance containing fibers
-gives rise to all other connective tissue types
-primarily in embryo
MUSCLE TISSUE - SMOOTH MUSCLE
-spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei
-propels substances or objects along internal passageways
-involuntary control
-mostly in the walls of hollow organs
SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
-single layer of tall cells
-absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes & other substances
-lines most of digestive tract
MUSCLE TISSUE
highly specialized to contract and prduces most types of body movement, tend to be quite elongated, three basic types
CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIA ON BASIS OF SHAPE
squamous (scalelike)
cuboidal (cubelike)
columnar (column shaped)
NERVOUS TISSUE - NEURONS
-branching cells
-transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effetors which control their activity
-brain, spinal cord and nerves
EXOCRINE GLANDS
retain their ducts, and their secretions empty through these ducts to an epithelial surface. They are both external and internal
OTHER CONNECTIVE TISSUE
BONE (OSSEOUS TISSUE)
-hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers
-bone supports and protects
-bones
MATRIX - GROUND SUBSTANCE
composed chiefly of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans. Depending on its specific composition, the ground substance may be liquid, semisolid, gEl-like, or very hard. When the matrix is firm, as in cartilage and bone, the connective tissue cells reside in cavities in the matrix called lacunae.
EPITHELIAL TISSUE - CELLULARITY AND SPECIALIZED CONTACTS
Cells fit closely together to form membranes, or sheets of cells, and are bound together by specialized junctions
STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
-several cell layers
-protection, secretion
-small amounts in male urethra
FOUR MAIN TYPES OF ADULT CONNECTIVE TISSUE
-connective tissue proper
-cartilage
-bone
-blood
EPITHELIAL TISSUE - AVASCULARITY
Epithelial tissues have no blood supply of their own (are avascular), but depend on diffusion of nutrients from the underlying connective tissue. (Glandular epithelia, however, are very vascular)
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
-single layer of cells of differing heights
-secretion, propulsion of mucus
-lines the trachea
ADIPOSE TISSUE
fat tissue, provides insulation for the body tissues and a source of stored food
HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE
blood-forming tissue replenishes the body's supply of red blood cells
TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM
a rather peculiar stratified squamous epithelium formed of rounded, or "plump," cells with the ability to slide over one another to allow the organ to be stretched
EPITHELIAL TISSUE CHARACTERISTICS
- Cellularity & specialized contacts
- Polarity
- Suported by connective tissue
- avascularity
- regeneration
TWO TYPES OF GLANDS
Endocrine glands
Exocrine glands
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
found in all parts of the body as discrete structures or as part of various body organs - it is the most abundant and widely distributed of the tissue types. In addition, connective tissue also serves a vital function in the repair of all body tissues since many wounds are repaired by connective tissue in the form of scar tissue
TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM
-resembles both stratified squamous & stratified cuboidal
-stretches readilty & permits distension
-lines the ureters
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
a simple columnar epithelium (one layer of cells), but because it's cells vary in height, and the nuclei lie at different levels above the basement membrane, it gives the false appearance of being stratified. This epithelium is often ciliated
MATRIX - TWO COMPONENTS
-ground substance
-fibers
AREOLAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE
a soft packaging material that cushions and protects body organs
CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER-
LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
RETICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE
-network of reticular fibers in a typical loos ground substance
-fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types
-lymphoid organs
CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER -
DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
DENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE
-primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers
-able to withstand tension exerted in many directions, provides structural strength
-fibrous capsules of organs and of joints
CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER -
DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE
-primarily parallel collagen fibers
-attaches muscles to bones or to muscles, attaches bones to bones
-tendons, most ligaments
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
-with a few exceptions (cartilages, tendons & ligaments), connective tissues have a rich supply of blood vessels
-connective tissues are composed of many types of cells
-there is a great deal of noncellular, nonliving material (matrix) between the cells of connective tissue
MATRIX
the nonliving material between the cells - the extracellular matrix - deserves a bit more explanation because it distinguishes connective tissue from all other tissues. It is produced by the cells and then extruded. It is primarily responsible for the strength associated with connective tissue, but there is a variation - at one extreme, adipost tissue is composed mostly of cells, at the opposite extreme, bone and cartilage have very few cells and large amounts of matrix.
MATRIX - FIBERS
The fibers, which provide support, include collagen (white) fibers, elastic (yellow) fibers, and reticular (fine collagen) fibers. Of these, the collagen fibers are most abundant