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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acheans
Danaans
Anagnoris
Moment of Recognition
Apollo
"First" killer of Patroklos (throws mist around him to disorient him)
Asklepios
God of Medical Teaching/Training
Bellerophon
Ancestor of Glaukos
Chiron
Centaur Doctor
Diomedes
Wounds Aphrodite
Ecpharsis
Artistic Description
Eris
Tosses apple of discord (goddess of strife)
Eros
Primal Desire (Love)
Hekamede
Potion Concoctor
Hephaestos
Shield-Forger
Hermes
Guide of Souls (Psychopomp)
Hieros Gamos
Sacred Marriage
Hypnos
Perches on a Pine Tree (by Zeus) God of Sleep
Ichor
Divine "Blood"
Menis
First Word of Iliad (Anger)
Moira
Fate or Portion in Life or "Stuff"
Mount Ida
Zeus' Lookout
Myrmidons
Achilles' Men
Niobe
Remembered to Eat even while grieving death of her children
Phoenix
Father Figure to Achilles
Sarpedon
Beloved Son of Zeus
Tethys
Ocean's Wife
Thetis
Mermaid Mother
Threnody
Song of Sorrow
Time
Esteem from Community
Xanthus
Talking Horse
Xenia
Hospitality to Strangers
Iris
Rainbow Messenger Goddess
Patroklos
Achilles friend and mentor
Odysseus
Clever & Well Spoken Greek
Hecuba
Queen of Troy & mother of Hektor and Paris
Priam
King of Troy (level-headed and kind) father of 50 warriors
Paris
Lover not a fighter, abduction of Helen started the war
Helen
most beautiful women, runs away with Paris & reason of the war
Andromache
wife of Hektor
Hektor
Greatest Trojan warrior, killed Patroklos
Astyanax
infant son of Hektor & Andromache
Glaukos
fights with Diomedes, but call it off after they realize their families are friends
Hera
Zeus' wife, in support of the Greeks
Aphrodite
Goddess of Love who supports the Trojans and Paris
Aias (Ajax)
Second greatest Greek Warrior after Achilles (fought with Hektor to a draw and exchanges gifts)
Agamemnon
Leader of the Achaeans, takes Briseus from Achilles
Nestor
oldest and wisest Greek leaders, accompanies Menalaus
Zeus
most powerful God, helps Trojans at request of Thetis
kleos
glory
kudos
pride
philia
deep family love
Ate
blindness/ not aware of what one is doing
aristeia
excellence; time in life when you are at peak & better than everyone else
digressive
tells a little story & then doesn't talk about it for a while (switches between stories)
Nereids
Thetis' 50 sisters (Sea Nymphs)
Balios
Achilles Horse
Neoptolemos
Achilles Son
Lykoan
sold into slavery by Achilles & just got back to troy (Hektor's brother killed by Achilles)
Scamandros
River God being polluted by Achilles with bodies
Erinyes/Furies
Primative Justice
Supplication
begging for your life
Alter-Ego
not like him, but mirrors him (Partoklos when he puts on Achilles armor)
epic simile
a long simile, usually pages long
hierogamy
sacred marriage
ethos
a person's character
Heroic Code
the more possessions one has = the more honor and glory and they will therefore live on as a legend
Troy
where the battle takes place
Eurypylos
wounded in battle and helped by Patroklos
Dione
mother of Aphrodite (with Zeus)
Okeanos
ocean God (supposedly fighting with wife Tethys
"For there are also the spirits of Prayer, the daughters of great Zeus and they are lame of their feet, and wrinkled, and cast their eyes sidelong, who toil on their way, left far behind by the spirit of Ruin, but she, Ruin, is strong and sound on her feet, and therefore far outruns all Prayers, and wins into every country to force men astray , but the Prayers follow as healers after her."
Phoenix talking to Achilles, supplicating his return
Achilleus, like the Gods, remember your father, one who is of years like mine, and on the door-sill of sorrowful old age..."
Priam, the king of Troy, comes to Achilles and begs for the body of Hektor. He reminds Achilles that his father will someday witness his death and Achilles gives the body back.
"Now they came beside the shelters and ships of the Myrmidons and they found [him] delighting his heart in a lyre, clear sounding, splendid and carefully wrought, with a bridge of silver upon it, which he won out of the spils when he ruined Eetion's city"
This is when Aias, Phoenix, & Odysseus go to Achilles and beg him to come back to the war offering him gifts from Agamemnon. The lyre was taken from Andromache's dead father's city.
"She came upon [her] in the chamber: she was weaving a great web a red folding-robe, and working into it the numerous struggles of Trojans, breakers of horses, and bronze armored Achaeians, struggles they endured for her sake at the hands of the war god."
This is the scene where Iris comes and finds Helen weaving a magnificent piece of work that captures the struggles of the warriors who are fighting over her
"So speaking, [he] caught his wife in arms. There underneath them, the divine earth broke into young, fresh grass, and into dewy clover, crocus and hyacinth so thick, and soft, it held the hard ground deep away from them. There they lay down together, and drew about them a golden Wonderful cloud, and from it the glimmering dew descended."
Zeus and Hera, Sacred Marriage
"and he laid him there, and with a knife cut the sharp tearing arrow out of his thigh, and washed the black blood running from it with warm water, and pounding it up in his hands, laid a bitter herb rot to make pain disappear, one which stayed all kinds of pain. And the wound dried, and the flow of blood stopped."
Patroklos comes across Eurypylos who was wounded by an arrow and says he will not leave him in his affliction. So, he uses techniques that were taught to him by Achilles to grind up herbs that kills the pain and stop the bleeding of Eurypylos' wound.
"You have scolded me rightly, not beyond measure... such is the heart in your breast, unshakable. Yet do not bring up against me the sweet favors of golden Aphrodite Never to be cast away are the gifts of the gods, magnificent, Which they give of their own will, no man could have them for wanting them."
Paris is scolded by Hektor for not being a brave warrior, but a handsome lover. Paris agrees that Hektor has the right to scold him, but also tells him that he has not been fair to him and that he should not be scolded for taking Helen because the gifts of the gods are precious and should never be turned away.
"you would not let me sorrow, but said you would make me godlike Achilles' wedded lawful wife, that you would take me back to the ships to Phthia, and formalize my marriage among the Myrmidons. Therefore I weep your death without ceasing: you were kind always."
Briseus mourns the death of Patroklos stating the he was always kind to her and never spoke harsh words to her. She also said that he had promised to bring her back to Phthia and make her Achilles' wife.
"and godlike Achilles, I made you all you are now, and loved you out of my heart, for you would not go with another out to any feast, nor taste any food in your own halls, until I has set you on my knees, and cut little pieces from the meat, and given you all you wished, and held the wine for you, and many times you soaked the shirt that was on my body with wine you would spit up in the troublesomeness of your childhood. So, I have suffered much through you, and have had much trouble"
This is when Phoenix is trying to beg Achilles to come back to combat. He reminds Achilles that he was like a father to him and has gone through some suffering for the benefit of Achilles.
"First she pushed up the table in front of them, a lovely table, polished and with feet of cobalt, and on it she laid a bronze basket, with onion to go with the drinking and pale honey, and beside it bread, blessed pride of the barley and beside it, a beautifully wrought cup... In this the woman like the immortals mixed them a potion with Prammeian Wine and grated goat's milk cheese into it with a bronze grater, and scattered with her hand white barely into it"
This is when Patroklos goes to see Nestor. Hekamede, who became Nestor's woman when Achilles sacked Tenedos, made a healing potion for the men to drink.
"Zeus and you other immortals, grant that this boy, who is my son, may be as I am, pre-eminent among the Trojans, great in strength, as am I, and rule strongly over Ilion, and some day let them say of him, 'He is better by far than his father...'"
Hektor prays to the Gods for his son, Astynax, to become even stronger and greater than he is himself. He does this when he visits his wife and son.
"They stood there holding motionless in its place the fair-wrought chariot, leaning their heads along the ground, and warm tears were running earthward from underneath the lids of the mourning horses who longed for their charioteer, while their bright manes were made dirty as they streamed down from either side of the yoke, under the yoke pad"
This is the scene where Patroklos is killed and the immortal horses of Achilles (Balios & Xanthus) weep for seeing him killed. This is the first time they have witnesses someone they have carried die.
"There is one more thing I will say, and ask if you, if you will obey me: do not have my bones laid apart from yours, Achilles, but with them, just as we grew up together in your house, when Menoitios brought me there from Opous, when I was little, and into your house, by reason of a baneful man-slaying, on that day when I killed the son of Amphidamus. I was a child only, nor intended it, but was angered over a dice game."
This is when Patroklos visits Achilles in a dream and tells him to finally bury him and that when Achilles dies to be buried next to him. This proves the loving bond that the two have for each other. Patroklos also reveals his past and how he had a steak of violence as a child and killed someone.
"First of all, he forged a shield that was huge and heavy, elaborating it about, and threw around it a shining triple rim that glittered, and the shield strap was cast of silver, he elaborated many things in his skill and craftsmanship. He made the earth upon it, and the sky, and the sea's water, and the tireless sun, and the moon waxing into her fullness and on it all the constellations that festoon the heavens."
This is when Thetis asks Hephaestos to forge Achilles new armor since his was taken by the Trojans after they killed Patroklos. The shield represents the universe and the cosmos, which symbolizes Achilles Recognition that there is and entire world and that everything is not just about him.
"Come then, we also, aged magnificent Sir, mus remember to eat, and afterwards you may take your beloved son back to Ilion, and mourn for him, and he will be lamented."
This is when Achilles offers his hospitality to Priam after he agrees to give back the body of Hektor.
"Sing, goddess, the anger of Peleus' son Achilles and its devastation, which put pains thousandfold upon the Achaians, hurled in their multitudes to the house of HAdes strong souls of heroes, but gave their bodies to be the delicate feasting of dogs, of all birds, and the will of Zeus was accomplished since that time when first there stood in division of conflict Atreus' son the lord of me and brilliant Achilles."
Homer is talking to the goddess of memory (invocation to the muse) to help him tell the story of Achilles anger.
"Now I am returning home, since it is much better to go home with my curved ships, and I am minded no lnger to stay here dishonored and pile up your wealth and your luxury."
Achilles is upset that Agamemnon is taking Briseus away from him. All of his hard work is adding towards Agamemnon's riches. Athena comes to Achilles to calm his anger.
"Dear lady I never escape you, you are always full of suspicion. Yet thus you can accomplish nothing surely, but be more distant from my heart than ever"
Zeus and Hera are arguing because Zeus has promised Thetis that he will help the Trojans by request of Achilles, while Hera is in support of the Greeks.
"He spoke, and the goddess of the white arms Hera smiled at him, and smiling she accepted the goblet out of her son's hand. thereafter beginning from left he poured drinks fro the other gods... but among the blessed immortals uncontrollable laughter went up as they saw Hephaistos bustling about the palace."
Hephaestos, the lame, serves wine to the other gods.
"Like the swarms of clustering bees that issue forever in fresh bursts from the hollow in the stone, and hang like bunched grapes as they hover beneath the flowers in springtime... so the many nations of men from the ships and the shelters along the front of the deep sea beach marched in order by companies to the assembly."
The epic simile of bees in which the Greek warriors getting off the ships are compared to swarms of bees.
"So he spoke and dashed the sceptre against his back and shoulders, and doubled over, and a round tear dropped from him and a bloody welt stood up between his shulders under the golden sceptre's stroke."
Thersites, an ugly and lame man, stands up to Agamemnon and his injustices against his men, but Odysseus scolds him and strikes him with the golden sceptre.
"Lady, censure my heart no more in bitter reprovals. This time Menelaos with Athena's help has beaten me; another time I shall beat him. We have gods on our side also. Come, then, rather let us go to bed and turn to love-making."
After Paris loses to Menelaos in a battle and Aphrodite carries him back to his bed, Helen is embarrassed with Paris. Yet she lays down with him in bed to make love.
"He dropped then to the ground in the dust, like some black poplar which in the land low-lying about a great marsh grows smooth trimmed yet with branches growing at the uttermost tree-top: one whom a man, a maker of chariots, fell with the shining iron."
A despcription of Simoeisius dying after Aias has struck him with his spear.
"So he spoke, and the goddess departed in pain, hurt badly, and Iris wind-footed took her by the hand and led her away from the battle, her lovely skin blood darkened"
This is when Aphrodite is rescuing Aeneas from battle and is wounded by the spear of Diomedes.
"So they spoke, and both springing down from behind their horses gripped each other's hands and exchanged the promise of friendship, but Zeus stole away the wits of Glaukos who exchanged with Diomedes armor of gold for bronze, so that others may know how we claim to be guests and friends from the days of our fathers'"
Glaukos & Diomedes exchanged gifts of their armor in the spirit of xenia (guest friendship) since their families had been friends.
"a thousand fires were burning there in the plain, and beside each one sat fifty men in the flare of the blazing firelight. And standing each beside his chariot, champing white barely and oats, the horses waited for the dawn to mount her high place."
The Trojans rested for the night and took care of their horses by letting them rest and eat food before they would return to battle the next morning.
"I am willing to make all good, and give back gifts in abundance." Horses, gold, Briseus
Agamemnon decides that he is ready to make peace with Achilles by giving back Briseus and an array of other gifts including one of his daughters. So he sends Phoenix, Ajax, and Odysseus to Achilles camp with the offer.
"Patroklos took the bread and set it out on a table in fair baskets, while Achilles served the meats. Thereafter he sat over by godlike Odysseus against the far wall and told his companion Patroklos to sacrifice to the gods."
Achilles offers hospitality (xenia) to his guests and they feast before any word of business is mentioned amongst them.
"If a man venerates these daughters of Zeus as they draw near, such a man they bring great advantage, and hear his entreaty; but if a man shall deny them, and stubbornly with a harsh word refuse, they go to Zeus, son of Kronos, in supplication that Ruin may overtake this man, that he be hurt, and punished."
This is saying that the Spirits of Prayer can play a major role in the success of men. If they pray to them and embrace them, then the men will succeed, but if they don't, they will be ruined.
Heroic Contract
Glaukous & Sarpedon (best way to die is gloriously in battle & then live on forever in legend)
'Rise up Trojans, breakers of horses, and wreck the ramparts of the Argives, and let loose the inhuman fire on their vessels"
Poor woman weighing wool compared to the closeness of the battle between the Trojans and the Greeks.
"And to her mind this thing appeared to be the best counsel, to array herself in loveliness, and go down to Ida"
Hera dresses herself up at her toilette in order to seduce Zeus and put him asleep in order to help the Greeks.
He was sad from the turmoil and death that he had witnessed amongst the battle on his way to Achilles tent
Patroklos is compared to a little girl because he cries for all of the death and destruction he has seen.
Cow standing over her calf
Menelaos over the body of Partoklos.
"Shaker of the earth, you would have me be as one without prudence if I am to fight even you for the sake of insignificant mortals, who are as leaves are, and now flourish and grow warm with life, and feed on what the ground gives, but then again fade away and are dead."
Apollo's disdain for mortals
Achilles drags body around against the code of war
Achilles kills Hektor and drags his body around to embarass him.
Andromache is worried that her son will become an orphan and she will become a slave
Andromache mourning the death of Hektor.
Laments of Helen, Hecuba, and Andromache
Grieve their loses and the torment of the war. Iliad ends with 10 days of peace to bury the dead and have a feast in their honor.