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15 Cards in this Set

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W.F. White
Cultural Deviance theory
Found little unorganized, thought Boston was differently organized
-Empirical Adequacy
-Relied on official measures (Shaw and McKay)
Albert Cohen
Strain theory
-Wants to explain
1) Existence and content of Delinquent subculture
2) Concentration of subculture in lower class
-Achieved status – status earned in American Society
-Embrace Middle Class Ethic
-Success measured against “middle class measuring rod”
-ambition, respect of property, material success, postpone gratification,
manners/courtesy, control violence, spend leisure constructively,
1) middle class – parents try to teach children to be rational. Deliberate
-stress self discipline
2) Lower class – parents are more easy going, spend more time with peers
-less structured activities
-Decreased ability to compete for lower class
-less tolls working in their favor
-especially in school
Robert Merton
Strain Theory
-Society
a) social structure (means)
-organized network of status (position) and roles (behavior)
b) Culture (ends) – monetary success
-organized network of vaules (estimates worth) and norms (expectations
patterns) that regulate a society’s patterns
-Assumptions
1) all share certain goals (all classes)
2) egalitarian ideology – anyone can make it
3) not all have equal access to goals
-Strain within system of society
W.B. Miller
-Cultural Deviance theory
-Lower class is organized in a different culture
-Focal concerns (values)
-concern about “trouble”
-“toughness” – physical prowess
-“smartness” – street smart
- “Excitement”
-“Fate”
-“Autonomy” – “no one is going to tell me what to do”
Thrasher
Cultural Deviance theory
-Instertitial-are between two zones
- Opposition developed, sometimes by other gangs
Shaw and McKay
-Cultural Deviance theory
-Disorganization
a) Little sense of community
b) little family stability
c) Institutional “failure” (i.e. school, church, etc)
d) mis-socialization à peer influence
Sykes and Matza
-Drift and Neutralization
-Techniques of neutralization – keeps kids offenses “neutralized”
1) Denial of responsibility – accident
2) Denial of injury
3) Denial of Victim – someone “had it coming”
4) Condemn the condemners
Condemners are:
a) inconsistent
b) competence – “who is he to judge me?”
c) commensurable – crime doesn’t fit punishment
5) Appeal to higher Loyalties
-These behaviors release juveniles from guilt and allows them to drift into delinquency
Cloward and Ohlin
- 3 different subcultures based on dominant activity
1) Criminal Subculture (gangs) (theft)
- absence of legitimate opportunities (contribution of strain theory)
- presence of illegitimate opportunities
a) learning structure – kids learn to do crime (Sutherland)
b) Performance structure (Sutherland)
2) Conflict Subculture (fights)
-Absence of legitimate opportunities
- absence of illegitimate opportunities
3) Retreat Subculture (drugs)
-Double Failure
-Person unable to stay away from legitimate/illegitimate opportunity
Rational Choice Theory
1) Routine Activities
a) motivated offender
b) suitable target
c) Absence of capable guardians
2) Expanded Deterrence Theory
Informal sanctions are very important
Cultural Deviance Theory
-5 zones of devlopment
-natural areas of begin to develop
Shaw and McKay with Thrasher
Urban Areas -> Social Disorganization -> Loss of Adult Control -> Street Gangs -> Delinquent youth Culture -> Delinquent Behavior
Emile Durkheim
-Strain
-Social condition of normlessness
Sutherland
-Differential Association
-Principles of Differential Association
1) Criminal behavior is learned
2) Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of
communications
3) the principle part of learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate
personal groups
4) When Criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes
a) techniques of committing crimes are sometimes very complicated and
sometimes very simple
b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalization, and attitudes
5) the specific direction of motives and drives is learned form definition of the
legal code as favorable or unfavorable
6) A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to
violation of law over definitions, unfavorable to violation of the law
7) Differential Association may very in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
8) The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning
9)While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those needs and values since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values
Neo-Classical Theory
-Utilitarianism
-punishment is important
-Solutions/Success of system
-Punishment as threat
Just Deserts Theory
-deserved reward or punishment
-Avoid doing harm
-Using punishment as a deterrent
-Least Restrictive
-Restorative Justice (Restitution, not just