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117 Cards in this Set

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What is the Homeric Question? (3 points)
Who was Homer??? lots of different dialects, Inaccuracies (Athens wasn't a city at this time, iron used for kitchen utensils during the bronze age)
Milman Parry
thought that the epics were probably a result of oral tradition because of consistency in where someone's name was and epithet used and observed same thing in anthropological oral poets
Albert Lord
thought that oral poem was probably molded for a crowd to explain all discrepancies like Athens being mentioned in list of ships
Heinrich Schliemann
mission was to prove that Troy was real and not a story- got wealthy in gold rush by selling stuff to miners and found it!- evidence dug up has righ age and matches descriptions in the epic
Mycenean Civilization
name given to bronze-age civilization from 1700-1000 BC
Linear B
language of Mycenean civilization- can be read
Sir Arthur Evans
went to Crete and did excavations
what did Sir Arthur Evans find?
bulls everywhere- more likely to be smiled upon for being father of Archeology
bull leaping
leaping over bulls and doing acrbatics
Labrys
little ornamental axes- not to kill anyone
snake goddess
famous artifact found at Minoan civilization
Minoan Civilization
3000-1400 BC (early-mid Bronze age- lots of art, no weapons other than ornamental axes, beautiful people with slim waists and broad shoulders
Linear A
language of Minoan Civilization- cannot be read still
Michael Ventris
cataloged symbols and determined that Linear B was a syllabary- found out that Linear B was greek, just not using greek letters, but spoke Greek
syllabary
not separate symbol for every word, but a symbol for common sound combinations
Dark Age
1100-750 BC- evidence of fires, no evidence of inhabitation in places- probably retreated to the hills with stuff that didn't leave traces- writing died
What are some theories about the coming of the Dark Age? (2)
island Volvanoed (thira), but found that was 200 years before these civilizations fell and that Greek-speakers of the North invaded and people left for fear- disrupted civilization but Ventris found that other way around, people already there spoke Greek
Overdetermination
when Gods intervene to make something happen that would have happened anyways- seem more inevitable
The Fischer King
Arthurion legend where king is sick and whole people suffer, hero comes and aids the kind and the kingdom comes back to life
Aristeia
a moment of greatness- Hector, big Ajax, Sarpedon, Patroclus
nostoi
return of Gree heroes- all tragic- come home to homeland not as they left
oikos
household- retreated from cities to hills, tribesman type of life
polis
city or city-stake, independent, self-sufficient
Archaic Age
(750-500 BC)- Phonecian traders brought alphabet (like ours) and got writing system again- different, but have one- first thing to be written were epics
barbarians
everyone who wasn't Greek
Panhellenism
greek language, greek gods, greek geneology- universal "greekness"- Delphi and Olympia are two very important sites to Greekness
Delphi
sacred to God Apollo- python- send to Delphi for an oracle where an intoxicated priestess (pythia) will blabber off something that priests would interpret- make offering (own temple that was site of national pride)
Olympia
important Panhellenic site- site of temple of Zeus
776 BC
first recorded Olympic games
Ecphrasis
literary description of a work of art (like Achilles' shield)
Histories (greek word)
research- Herototus wrote it- filled with supernatural, hard to believe stories that even he does not believe
First Historian?
Herototus
Lydia
kingdom near modern-day Turkey- known as wealthy- sea turtle people?
Candaules
king of Lydia- proud of weak and beautiful wife- wanted general to see her naked
Gyges
general that Candaules wanted to see his wife naked- killed Candaules and got wife (either that or choose to kill self)
Croesus
one of wealthies kings and descendant of Gyges- wanted to wage war with Persians and sent to Delphi to get answer that one nation will fall and it happened to be his
Basileus
king in greek- refers to king of Persia if not specified
Proskynesis
kissing towards someone to show humility (before king or higher people)
Ionian revolt
revolt in some city states in greek horseshoe- not very dramatic but Persia sent an army to quell it- had Athen's help
490 BC
send punitive force to Athens to teach the Athenians a lesson
Darius
king that sent the forces to teach Athens a lesson for helping the other city-states in the Ionian Revolt
Battle of Marathon
after Persians burnt the city of Aitria- Athenia forces sent there- 490- ran at each other, but Greeks on purposefully weak in the center, so enclosed the Persians and dominated
Pheidippides
runner sent to Sparta- turned around- ran to Athens and died after delivering message that Athenians won
Why couldn't Sparta come to Marathon?
In the middle of a religious celebration
Miltiades
Athenian general who thought of weakening center- very successful
hoplites
heavily armer infantry men (Athenians)
marathonomachoi
participants in the battle of Marathon- national heroes
480 BC
sent a much large force meant to conquer
Xerxes
king at the time of the second force
Battle of Thermopylae
300 spartans, 700 thespians- for two days, Persians attempted to pass through this narrow gap that would only let people go through a little at a time- moral victory for Greeks even though no one survived- allowed army to have more preparation time
Leonidas
leader of 300 personal body guards- didn't want to offend the Gods by sending a larger force to Thermopylae
The Immortals
king's elite forces (10,000)- couldn't even pass in Thermopylae
Simonides
composed poem "tell Sparta, passerby, that keeping out orders here we lie" or something- put near site of Thermopylae
Battle of Salamis
naval battle- Athenians won- lots of casualties because Persians couldn't swim
Battle of Platea
most of army gone and stalemate- looked like greeks were retreating, but fooled them and dominated once turned and fought- decisive victory
Artemesia
female commander on the Persian's side- counciled Xerxes not to go against the Greeks in battle of Salamis- smashed into Allie's skip to fool the Greeks
Atossa
widoe of Darius, mother of Xerxes- person in play talking about free people- where they yelled after saying that the people have no king
eleutheria
greek word for liberty
tragedy
goats?
comedy
song of revelers
Nietzche
juxtaposed Dionysian and Apollonian philosophies- saw Apollo as order, reason, control, moderation, and Dionysus as frenzy, spontaneousness, craziness, excess
City of Dionysia
3 day festival to Dionysus- pinnacle was drama competition- part of religious ceremony- 3 plays with 1 Satire- 1 voted winner
Dionysus
God of that altered mind set- mother was wife of king of Thebes- Hera tricks her into asking to see her lover (Zeus) in all his glory and she blows apart so he took some part of her (baby, heart) and puts it in his thigh till born- seen as outsider and strange and effeminate
Oresteia
trilogy of Agamemnon- libation bearers, furies,- made political statement against taking power away from Aereopagus by telling of its divine origins
Catharsis
greek verb, meaning to cleanse- Aristotle thought that by watching a tragedy, we purge that tendency in us- leave the theater cleaner and better people
Aereopagus
law court- establish in furies play- telling of divine origins
Old comedy
political satire (Aristophanes 450-386 bc)
new comedy
more like sitcoms- family story of love and caring slave.. Menander (344-292 BC)
what were pre-Socrates philosophers interested in?
interested in what made of, not how and nature of world around them
Politeia
written by Plato in response to question of what makes a good soul- expanded to what makes a good city
Stasis (greek word)
civic unrest- violence, something to do with factionalism
tyrant
someone who seizes supreme authority without prior right to that authority, not necessarily evil
Solon
when was elected, saw himself as protector of both factions- did a lot- got rid of debt-bondage, changed legal system so positions held by wealth (had a chance to move up) (638-558 BC)
593 BC
date Solon was elected archon
archon
chief magistrate
pentacosiomedimnoi
500 bushel guys- very wealthiest, have the opportunity to be elected generals
Peisistratus
one of the famous tyrnats- tried 3 times- benefited Athens by becoming politically stable, expanded mining, built temples, dramatic festivities, led it to become political head of Greece, oversaw ceramic industry
Phue
the 6 foot peasant woman Peisistratus dressed as Athena to take over- worked :P
Cleisthenes
father of democracy- took Solon's ideas, made them practical- all citizens could participate, regardless of wealth
ekklesia (greek word)
who founded this?
500 person council- 50 people from each of the 10 tribes would participate- Cleisthenes founded it
demos
tiny municipality- Cleisthenes contributed this idea- population of a greek city state? common people?
ostracism
write name on a pottery shard and the person with the most votes is expelled from Athens for 10 years- held once a year
Themistocles
father of Athenian navy- struck an enormous vein of silver and they used the money to build 200 triremes
Peloponnesus
island where Sparta is
Lycurgus
Spartan law-giver- set up a bunch of military reforms and the great Rhetra (large, democratic organization)
Messenia
south west part of the Peloponnesus island- where the Helots lived and worked to support the Spartans
Helots
an unfree population who worked to support Spartan citizens (agricultural)- routinely mistreated by the Spartans- lived in Messenia
Spartiates
regular Spartan males?
agoge
thing where they kidnapped the little boys and stuff :)
crypteia
the part of the agoge where they had to survive on their own- survival type, kill helots and steal food
syssitia
meal, like an army mess? required to go unless have an awesome excuse
eunomia
law code that limited the arbitrary powers of the aristocratic magistrates and regulated social conflict
Academy
school that plato held in an olive grove
metaphysics
quest for nature apart from physical, tangible world- this world is secondary and not as important as the world of the forms, written by Plato
Allegory of the Cave
in metaphysics, written by Plato, is story about the people who watch shadows on the world and he escapes, sees the real things, and then sees the real world once he gets out of the cave and rushes in to share this with his people but they mock him and kill him (reference to Socrates)
Platonic forms
earth is full of pale reflections of another world and ideal and perfect things reside in another world- everything on this earth is the trying to imitate the true and perfect table- we lived on this world before we came and our souls are made of stuff of the forms
The Good
the sun in the allegory of the cave- the sun that made everything on earth- illuminates our world to us and lights intelligence (kinda like God)
Delian League
NATO of Greece- allied with Athens for protections after Ionian revolt and stuff- had to either pay for the upkeep of the navy or provide own navy- money flowed into Athens and it became more and more powerful and eventually the bully on the block
Pericles
supervised the golden age of Athens- when Athens was the most important and had a great deal of money- golden age for Athens
The Long Walls
walls that surrounded the city (a few miles inland) and extended out to the ports, making it safe from Sparta
Peloponnesian League
arose to counterbalance the Delian League- with Sparta as the most powerful, once defeated Delian League, became the bully on the block
Alcibiades
young, good-looking person who thought they should help the little town by Syracuse (very wealthy and would help pay for the loses they were sustaining from the wars with Sparta)- ended up winning and going but joining the other side after wanted for chopping all penises off the hermai
Nicias
second opinion on the small town by syracuse- thought shouldn't when still trying to control the stuff that already have- ended up going as one of the generals
hermai
boundary markers with the face and balls of Hermes- Alcibiades de-maned them all in an act of sacrilege which it was decided that he must pay for- caused him to jump ship
Sicilian Expedition
epic fail- went to save the small town by syracuse and ended up destroying their entire fleet with thousands of casualties- led to complete defeat by Sparta
Thirty Tyrants
what Sparta installed after totally dominating the Athenians- hated by Athens and eventually being driven out
series of conflicts between Sparta and Athens? Outcomes?
Peloponnesian Wars- Sparta on top of the Greek world, both still sustained huge loses in men and money that never really were made up
what was Plato's basic philosophy?
object of knowledge is etherial, family ties not as important as ties to state
What was Aristotle's basic philosophy? what was his private school called?
knowledge was to be gained from the world by researching the whole world and pulling the date together to find answers- Lyceum
What was Aristotle's politea and what did it say?
Constitution- visited hundreds of city-states, observed, worte a book on his findings
what did Aristotle think "forms" were?
what the artist had in his mind when he created it
What are the three kinds of souls according to Aristotle?
nutritive (suck up nutrients, like plants, animals, humans), Kinetic (moving, like animals and humans), and rational (can think, only men)
thucydides
2nd father of history- wrote a factual account, rather than great stories of Peloponnesian wars- objective and historically active
Aeschylus
great tragedy writer, marathonamochos, 7 out of 90 plays survive
Sophocles
great tragedy writer- 7 out of 123 plays survive
Euripides
great tragedy writer- 19 out of 90 plays survive
how did Plato view the soul? (3)
divided into "natural man", brave man, wise man