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103 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Bitzer's Rhetorical Situation
If you are going to be successful in public speaking, you have to be sensitive to the situation in which you find yourself
Three Components of Rhetorical Situatuation
Exigence, Constraints, Audience
Three Components of Rhetorical Situatuation: Exigence
You need to understand what is the motivation for the speaker to come forth this time, in this place to speak out.
Three Components of Rhetorical Situatuation: Exigence
Motivation, 2 types
Internal: Self motivated to speak
External: Speech class, Speaking because you have to
Three Components of Rhetorical Situatuation:
What are the rules of the game surrounding/constraing what the speaker can and can't do or say.
-Are there opportunities in the enviroment to assist the speaker.
-Current events or examples; or help the audience understand
-Rules codes of conduct to avoid
Three Components of Rhetorical Situatuation:
Understanding the audience helps us strategize (specifically language and supporting materials).
Most important thing of planning a speech?
Understanding the audience
Four Factors to know about the audience:
1. Volutary or involuntary.
2. What is their pre-existing knowledge level regarding your topic.
3. Demographic Information
4. Attitudinal Information
Involuntary audience
Things to do to spice it up
-talk about something they find interest in
-tell them how the info affects them
-Recognize the fact they don't want to be there
-Get them involved
Demographic info (important to Know!)
Demographics: population characteristics
-age, gender, culture, ethnicity, race, religous affiliation, education, income, Geographic location.
-when you pick a topic make a list of the audiences demographic info.
Attitudal Info:
does the audience agree or disagree with your position.
Attitudal Info:
How strong is the attitude
Attitudal Info:
Importance/relevance of the attitude on the persons like. How often do they have to make decisions based on that attitude?
Attitudal Info:
Likeability of the speaker
-entertaining/inject humor
-physical appearance
-be open about other's opinions/ don't be condescending
-identify with their experiences
A speaker's ideas are accepted as believable only..... the degree that the speaker is perceived to be credible
Aristotle’s Ethos
Good Sense
Good Character
Good Will
Dynamism (not aristotle's)
Good sense
expertise level, how you come across as professional
Good Character
Good Will
perception that you are speaking to your audience to benefit them.
How much enthusiasm you have
Things to do to increase your credibility
-be confindent
-put others opinions in
-eye contact
-be likeable
Ways to be more enthusiastic
Tone of voice, gestures
Nonverbal credibility factors
-eye contact
-moderate relaxation
-minimal use of purposeless
-gestures (e.g., hand-wringing and grooming)
-a moderate to slightly fast speech rate
-fluent speech
-a conversational delivery style
Powerful Speech
-Power in speech is indicated by a multitude of verbal and nonverbal variables
Powerless Speech
-Powerless speech negatively impacts a persons credibility, as they appear less knowledgeable and less confident (perception of audience members)
Powerless Speech Variables
-frequent use of intensifiers ("so," "very," "surely," as in "I surely did.")
-hedges ("kinda," "I think," "I guess," etc.)
-especially formal grammar (the use of bookish grammatical forms)
-hesitation forms ("uh," "well," "you know," etc.)
-gestures (e.g. the use of hands and expressions such as "over there" while speaking)
-Tag questions (don’t you agree)
-Qualifiers (“I am not sure but”, “you may disagree”)
-questioning forms (e.g., the use of rising, question intonation in declarative contexts)
- polite forms ("please," "thank you," etc.)
Demographically, which groups have a tendency to use the powerless speech pattern?
Those in a lower socio-economic class


Use Language Effectively: Be accurate
Be accurate in your word choice. One form of inaccuracy is to use similar sounding but incorrect words called maladrops.
-Use standard gramar in standard English
Be appropriate
match your language to the topic, the audience, the situation, and yourself as an individual. Generally more formal
Be Concise
Directness is valued, eliminate unnecessary words called (verbiage)
Be clear
the purpose of public speaking is to clarify ideas rather than make them hard to understand. One of the best ways to be clear is to avoid jargon.
Be concrete
Choose concrete words: Specific rather than general or abstract terms. Avoid vague words: Imprecise terms that have indefinite boundaries.
Delivery Modes
spontaneous, unrehearsed manner of speaking.
Advantages for the speaker include a natural and spontaneous feel, a large degree of eye contact with the audience, and the opportunity to respond to audience feedback.
Disadvantages include a lack of organization, increased anxiety, insertion of verbal fillers such as "um," "you know," and the inability to include prepared visual aids such as graphs and charts.
the speech is written out completely and read aloud to the audience.
Two advantages to this mode are that the language may be planned carefully and the speaker has an exact record of the speech.
However, the speaker is afforded limited eye contact with the audience and is not likely to be aware of audience feedback.
The speech may sound stilted and monotonous due to the written style of the speech. We often write in lengthy, complex sentences that do not translate well into oral style.
the speech is written out and committed to memory.
Two advantages to this method of delivery are that it allows the speaker to have full eye contact with the audience and the wording of the speech can be carefully planned.
The disadvantages are many: forgetting one idea can lead to forgetting the rest of the speech; the speaker cannot adapt to feedback from the audience
it requires a large investment of time; and it is likely to sound "memorized" and stilted.
speaking from prepared notes in a conversational manner.
By far the best choice for most academic and professional presentations.
this mode allows the speaker ample time to prepare. He or she can include stats, quotes, graphs, and other audiovisual aides in the presentation.
The presence of a key word or sentence outline provides security, yet allows flexibility in the presentation.
The speaker may establish eye contact with the audience and therefore has the opportunity to respond to audience feedback.
One drawback is that if the speaker is not adequately rehearsed, he or she may falter in the presentation. Rehearsal is essential.
Key Word Outline
This key word outline provides the framework for you to connect with your audience; you will be able to establish eye contact with your audience and therefore be able to respond to their feedback as you give your presentation. It also alleviates the possibility of your reading your full-sentence planning outline to the audience, likely losing their interest.
What should you write out word for word on a key word outline?
Even when using a key word outline, it is recommended that you write out a few components of the presentation word for word:

Key statistics or quotes
Introduction (possibly conclusion)
Nonverbal Communication
The best nonverbal behaviors are ones that help you appear relaxed, enthusiastic, and natural.

Posture and Appearance
Eye Contact
Facial Expressions
Body Movement
Posture and Appearance
Dress professionally and appropriate for your audience
Stand up straight with your arms by your sides, hands out of your pockets.
Do not lean on the table or desk – sit up straight.
Eye Contact
Look directly at your listeners– this makes them feel important and lets them know that you want to share your message.
Eye contact also allows you to respond to the feedback that you receive as you give your presentation.
70-80% of presentation, speaker should be engaged in eye contact
Facial Expressions
Your facial cues allow your listeners to interpret the meaning of your message.
You can communicate your enthusiasm to your listeners and, by doing so, increase their interest in the subject. Likewise, a bored expression on your part is certain to bore your audience.
Smile occasionally (if topic appropriate)
Body Movement
Gestures should add excitement and reinforce ideas but SHOULD NOT distract the audience’s attention from what you are saying
Avoid nervous habits (tapping podium, rocking back and forth, tapping pen).
The best speaking voice is one that uses vocal variety to sound conversational, natural, and enthusiastic.

Speak with enough volume to be heard by everyone in the room!
Speaking too softly may communicate a lack of confidence; however, speaking too loudly may communicate an overbearing and aggressive demeanor.
Variety is the key! Slow down for serious and/or complex material.
Speed up for lighter material and/or emotionally charged material.
A bit quick is preferred over a bit slow. Some studies suggest a moderate/quick rate increases social attractiveness, dominance and status (affects credibility)
Strive to pronounce your words clearly so that your audience can understand you. Pay particular attention to middle and final consonants in words!
* Avoid slang and profanity
Misc Variables
Intentional and Unintentional
. Intentional pauses are designed to draw attention to what the speaker said or to allow the audience time to think and reflect
. Unintentional pauses are typically the result of a lack of preparation, nervousness, or poor transitions.
Vocalized Fillers
Use of ums, ahs: unwanted sounds that fill gaps in your presentation.
Visual Aids
-Needs good visibility (font size etc.)
-asthetically pleasing
-relevance to the topic/speech needs to be high
-Not too dominant, don't replace speech
-easy to use
-Display when using it only
-not distracting, NO HANDOUTS
-Don't turn your back to the audience
Verbal Supporting Material
Supporting materials are informative materials that serve as a foundation for assertions, ideas, or statements.

Their purpose is to clarify, prove, or add interest.
Types of Verbal Support
Expert Opinion
Explanations Define
and EXAMPLE: (definition)
Explanations describe the relationship between certain items, makes a clear definition, or gives instruction.
Speech Topic: Plagiarism
“Word-for-word plagiarism happens when the writer directly quotes a passage or passages from an author's work without the use of proper quotation marks.”
Explanations Cont’d
EXAMPLE: (Relationship Between items)
Speech Topic: Weight Loss
“Losing weight is all about understanding calories. One pound is 3500 calories, so if you burn 3500 extra calories a week through exercise, or reduce your diet by 3500 calories, you will lose 1 pound.”
Explanations Cont’d
EXAMPLE: (Instructions)
Speech topic: Reducing the Impact of High Gas Prices
“The first thing you should try is walking to class, whenever possible. If you live too far away, then you should carpool with people who have a similar schedule or take the bus.”
Show the similarities or differences between something the listeners know and something they do not know.
Comparisons,2 types
Literal and Figurative
Literal Comparisons
Literal comparisons show similarities between items in the same class or category.

“We license drivers; therefore we should license gun owners.”

“Corporal punishment is illegal in prisons, so how can we allow it in schools?”
Figurative Comparisons
Figurative comparisons show similarities between two or more items from different classes or categories.
Detailed narratives used to explain or clarify ideas
Use of figures and numerical data
 Consider the following when using statistics:
Always check figures for accuracy
use sparingly
round off large or complicated numbers when the general meaning will not be lost
present your figures in terms the audience can understand.
Statistics Cont’d
Maximize/minimize for effectiveness
This disease affects 1% of our population
Over 295,000 people are affected
How do we determine if statistics are
credible and should be included as
Check the validity of facts by looking at the following tests:
Is the fact directly observable? Is the fact generally accepted as fact? Do other facts or expert opinion support the fact? Is the alleged fact consistent with other known facts?
“THE DOES IT MAKE SENSE FACTOR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!”
Remember: 30% of all men are infertile??????
Are the statistics based on an adequate and representative sample?
Is the use of statistics meaningful? Is there a standard to measure against? If so, what is it?
Is the statistic recent
Does it come from a biased source
Testimony (expert opinion)
Testimony: The use of another person's words to support the speaker's ideas. Expert testimony is most effective
Testimony (expert opinion),3 types
opinions from leaders in the field. Considered to be highly credible.
opinions from people with similar characteristics to the target audience
The speaker’s own experience and opinions
How do we determine if testimony is credible
and should be included as support for your
-if the speaker is believable
Ask yourself these questions concerning opinions or testimony:
Expert opinion -- Is the person truly an expert? Is the person an expert in the field in which he or she is giving testimony? Are the expert's opinions shared by other experts? Is the expert unbiased?
Peer opinion -- What are the facts? Are witnesses consistent in their reporting of facts? Is other evidence available?
Goal of an Introduction
The goals of an speech introduction are: introduce your topic, yourself and the purpose of your speech. Make them want to hear the rest of your speech.
A good speech introduction is the same as making a good first impression.
parts of
The introduction should make up about 10 to 15 percent of the total speech. The conclusion should make up 5 to 10 percent.
Attention Getter
Thesis Statement
Attention Grabber
The attention-getter is designed to intrigue the audience members and to motivate them to listen attentively for the next several minutes.

Most importantly, an attention-getter should create curiosity in the minds of your listeners and convince them that the speech will be interesting and useful.

Not only should the words get the audiences attention, but your delivery should be smooth and confident to let the audience know that you are a skilled speaker who is prepared for this speech.
Serves to engage the audience
Causes them to think about the situation you are describing.
You should tell a story with feeling and deliver it directly to the audience instead of reading it off your note cards.
Rhetorical Question
Rhetorical questions are questions designed to arouse curiosity without requiring an answer.
Either the answer will be obvious, or if it isn't apparent, the question will arouse curiosity until the presentation provides the answer.
An example of a rhetorical question to gain the audiences attention for a speech about fly-fishing is, "Have you ever stood in a freezing river at 5 o'clock in the morning by choice?"
A quotation from a famous person or from an expert on your topic can gain the attention of the audience.
The use of a quotation immediately launches you into the speech and focuses the audience on your topic area.
If it is from a well-known source, cite the author first. If the source is obscure, begin with the quote itself.
Startling Statistic/Shocking Statement
Another possibility to consider is the use of a factual statistic intended to grab your listener's attention.
As you research the topic you've picked, keep your eyes open for statistics or statements that will have impact.

Example: The Surgeon General reports that battering is the single most common cause of injury to women, resulting in more injuries than auto accidents, rapes and muggings combined.
Thesis and Preview
A thesis statement is one sentence in the introduction in which you declare your purpose and topic.
Then, briefly preview the main points of your speech
Helps provide structure for the audience
Helps audience remember key ideas
Thesis and Preview Example
Carving Pumpkins is an fun activity for your whole family. (thesis statement) Today, I will show you how to select a great pumpkin for carving, what tools you will need, and various designs that can be made (preview).
Without transitions, your speech does not flow smoothly.
Transitions are words and phrases that serve as bridges from on idea to the next.
They keep the audience from having to find his or her own way and possibly getting lost in the speech. Provide structure.
Transitions can also be looked at as the glue that hold your ideas together. They are very important.
transitions, 4 types
Complimentary (ideas linked by similarity)
Causal (ideas linked based on one thing causing another)
Competing (ideas linked by difference)
Chronological (ideas linked based on time)
Examples of transitions
“In addition to saving time, mapping out your trip can also save you money.
“In contrast to men, diagnosing a heart attack in women is much more difficult.”
Because prisons are so overcrowded, state taxes are increasing at an amazing rate.”
“The final step is to decide what type of face you want to draw”
Relate the topic to the audience

Tell the audience why this information is relevant to them (why they should listen)
Intro key components
Introduction Key Components
Attention Getter
Conclusion, parts
1a. Transition into conclusion
2. Final statement: Call to action (usually only in persuasive). Great to link to attention getter
Organizing Your Speech tips
2-5 main points is typical; depending on length and purpose
Write down each of your main points and the support you’ll use (on paper or note cards) and see how they relate to each other…how they relate will dictate your organizational structure
Organizational Patterns
Problem Solution
Counter Argument
Motivated Sequence
If your topics relate in a pattern based on time, this would be chronological. First x, then y, then z.
Spatial is like chronological, except instead of being based on time, it is based on location
Causal organizational pattern works well in speeches in which you are trying to show that one thing is caused by the other.
Problem Solution
The organizational pattern is used in persuasive speeches.
The pattern allows the speaker to set up a problem that currently exists and then offer a solution to solve the problem
Counter Argument
This is an information speech and the main objective is to inform the audience on a controversial topic and you explore both sides of the issue.
This is used in persuasive speeches. Similar to the counter argument structure, you present both sides. The difference is that you tell us what one side is and then you argue against it and prove your “side” or case is correct.
A topical pattern is one in which the main points have no seeming relationship. They are completely independent ideas.
Yet, you have to have some organizational structure.
With topical, How do determine which point should come first?
Start with your strongest point and move to your weakest point (least evidence).
Motivational Sequence (in order)
Writing Arguments
Toulmin Model
Basic Structure
Claim is the main point or main premise of your argument. In the example below,
The underlined is the claim.

Shawshank Redemption is the best movie I have ever made. because the acting was outstanding.
Data is the evidence you use to support your claim. In the example below, the underlined section is your data:

Shawshank Redemption is the best movie I have ever made. because the acting was outstanding.
Warrants link the claim and data. It is what makes the argument sound. Warrants are the underlying assumptions you must believe to accept the argument as true.
warrant example
Shawshank Redemption is the best movie I have ever made. because the acting was outstanding.

Warrant: Best movies are defined by outstanding acting.
Often, the warrant to the argument is unstated, but if chained out (or written out) it follow what is called a syllogistic form (basic logical argument)

Major Premise: All bears fans are great.
Minor Premise: Mary beth is a bears fan
Conclusion: Mary Beth is great.
Usually, you would hear: “Mary Beth is great, she is a bears fan.”
The minor premise, or warrant is not stated
You need to ask yourself “will the warrant be believed or accepted.” If not, you add backing.

Backing is support for the warrant. Evidence to help prove it is true.
warrant backing example
The death penalty should be legal in all states (claim) because the majority of Americans support it (data).

Warrant: if the majority support it, it should be legal.
Backing: We are based on a democratic society where the sentiments of the majority rule.