• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/89

Click to flip

89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was the Union Army desertion rate from 1863 to 1864?
200 desertions every day, for a total of 150,000 desertions during those two years.
Why did Lincoln choose Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate?
He hoped Johnson would help him win votes from Northern pro-war Democrats
What did Lincoln and Johnson campaign for?
Unconditional surrender of the South
Who ran against Lincoln in 1864?
General McClellan, as a Peace Democrat
What victories helped Lincoln win the election of 1864?
The Battle of Mobile Bay and Sherman's taking of Atlanta
Why did General McClellan lose the 1864 election?
Because his peace platform was too idealistic, and the news of the victory in Atlanta favored Lincoln
What act isolated the South?
The Union gaining total control of the Mississippi
Which key rivers are in the Western theater?
Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee, Cumberland
Where did General Forrest serve?
For the Confederacy, in Western Tennessee
What was General Forrest's famous quotation about war?
War means fighting and fighting means killing
At which battle did General Forrest become infamous?
Fort Pillow, where he led a brutal attack against the mixed-race Union forces, killing half the troops in a move that is believed to be based in racism
After the war, what is General Forrest known for?
Founding the Ku Klux Klan
How did the Confederate troops feel about General Joseph Johnston?
They liked him
What army did Joseph Eggleton Johnston command?
The Confederate Army of Tennessee
Why did President Davis relieve Johnston of his command?
He retreated instead of engaging Sherman's forces near Atlanta
With whom did Davis replace General Johnston?
General Hood
What led Grant to target Atlanta?
It was a transporation and logistical center for the South
What general died at the Battle of Atlanta?
Union General McPherson
Who replaced Johnston as a result of the Battle of Atlanta?
General Bell
What did Grant do to pursue his goal of attacking Atlanta?
Built up an Army in Chattanooga and prepared them to invade Georgia
Who fought the Battle of Mobile Bay?
Union Rear Admiral Farragut and Confederate Admiral Franklin Buchanan
What bold move did Farragut make at Mobile Bay?
He ran through a minefield even though it had just destroyed one of his ironclads
Whose victory was the Battle of Mobile Bay?
The Union's
Why was Mobile Bay an important victory for the Union?
It completed their bockade by capturing the last important, Confederate port on the Gulf of Mexico east of the Mississippi River
Which key rivers are in the Eastern theater?
York, James, and Potomac
What was the succession of commanders of the Army of the Potomac?
Brigadiere General Irvin McDowell --> General McClellan --> General Burnside --> General Hooker --> General Meade
Who was general-in-chief of all the Union armies from 1864 to 1865?
Ulysses S. Grant
What notable rank was Grant promoted to?
Lieutenant General, a rank not held in the U.S. since George Washington
What was Grant's approach to how he used the Union forces?
He concentrated them on attacking Confederate troops rather than simply occupying Confederate territory, because destroying the enemy's army would win the war
What task did Grant assign to General Sherman?
Command of the Western Theater
What was the Overland Campaign?
A series of battles led by General Grant in Virgina, that maneuvered Lee into a seige at Petersburg, Virgina
What did Grant sacrifice in the Overland Campaign?
Many men -- his casualties were very high, but he pressed on in an attempt to corner General Lee
On which battlefield did Generals Grant and Lee first engage armies?
Battle of the Wilderness, 1864
Where was the Battle of the Wilderness located?
Wilderness of Spotsylvania, a scrubby, rough terrain in central Virginia
Which side won the Battle of the Wilderness?
Neither; the battle was inconclusive
What was the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House?
The battle immediately following Wilderness, the second in Grant's Overland Campaign
What did Grant succeed in doing in the Battle of Spotsylvania?
Inflicting heavy damages on the Army of Virginia, which was half the size of Grant's army
Who won the Battle of Spotsylvania?
As with the Battle of the Wilderness, it was inconclusive
What campaign was the Battle of Cold Harbor a part of?
Grant's Overland Campaign
What gave the Confederate Army the advantage at Cold Harbor?
They arrived to the location before the Union army and had a chance to dig in their defensive line
What was the battle of Cold Harbor known for?
One of the bloodiest and most lop-sided battles, where 7,000 soldiers fell in 20 minutes
What percentage of troops did each side lose at the Battle of Cold Harbor
The Union lost 41% of their army; the Confederacy lost 46%
What battle did Grant regret the most and why?
Battle of Cold Harbor, because of the tremendous loss of life with no tactical gain
Who was the target of the Senandoah Valley Campaign?
Civilians and their property
Which generals opposed each other in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign?
General Sheridan (Union) and Jubal Early (Confederacy)
What was the importance of Shenandoah Valley?
Back door for the Confederate raids on Maryland, Washington, and Pennsylvania. The scene of 3 major campaigns: Valley Campaign of 1862 and Valley Campaigns of 1864.
Why did Grant choose to lay siege to Petersburg instead of heading for Richmond?
He wanted to take out the rail junction that supplied Richmond and, in effect, starve Richmond
Who won in the Siege of Petersburg
The Union, over the course of 10 months
What was Sherman's "march to the sea"?
General Sherman's Savannah campaign, when he left Atlanta and made his way to Savannah, inflicting great civilian destruction on his way
What were Sherman's Sentinels and Sherman's Neckties?
Both were reminder's of Sherman's destruction: Sentinels were the standing chimneys of burnt-out houses he left behind; Neckties were railroad rails that his troops had heated and wrapped around trees
What message was Sherman trying to send by waging civilian destruction on his march to the sea?
That the South was powerless to defend their lives, homes, and property
What was the result of Sherman's march?
Much of the potential of the South was destroyed
Where did Sherman head after taking Savannah?
South Carolina
How long and wide was Sherman's March?
275 miles long and up to 60 miles wide
What is the quantified damage of Sherman's March?
300 miles of railroad wrecked
bridges and miles of telegraph lines destroyed
5,000 horses, 4,000 mules, and 5,000 heads of cattle seized
9.5 million lbs of corn and 10.5 million lbs of fodder confiscated
Countless homes, cotton gins, and mills burned to the ground
Where did Lee surrender?
Appamatox Courthouse
What quality of soldier was General Custer?
He was only one month out of West Point, where he graduated at the bottom of his class. Young and inexperienced.
What was General Custer's role at Appomattox Station in 1865?
He led the troops that dealt the Army of Northern Virginia a final blow
The terms of Lee's surrender to Grant were what?
Generous: he let Lee's men return home (as long as they would not fight) supplied them with food rations, and allowed them to take their horses and mules
What did Jefferson Davis do after Lee surrendered to Grant?
He met with his cabinet and officially dissolved the Confederate government
When Lee surrendered to Grant - was it end of war or did Lee just surrender Army of Viriginia?
Lee surrendered only his army -- the war still continued
What specifically marked the end of the confederacy?
Lee's surrender at Appatomax -- for all practical purposes
How far was Lincoln into his second term when he was assassinated?
5 weeks
Where was Lincoln shot?
At Ford's Theater (also correct: in the head)
Who assassinated Lincoln and with what motivation?
John Wilkes Booth, a stage actor and Confederate sympathizer who opposed the abolition of slavery.
Did Booth originally plan to assassinate the president, or did his plan change?
Originally he planned to kidnap the president and hold him in exchange for Confederate prisoners, but Lincoln's April 11th speech incensed him and he chose assissination.
What was the original assissination plan?
For Booth to kill Lincoln and his co-conspirators to kill Secretary of State William H. Seward and Vice President Andrew Johnson, leaving succession in question.
Who would have been president if both Lincoln and Johnson were assassinated?
Senate Pro Tem. Lafayette S. Foster. It wasn't until 1947 that it was changed to the Speaker of the House
Who conspired with Booth on the assassination plans?
John Surratt, Mary Surratt, Lewis Paine, David Herold, and George Atzerodt
What happened to John Wilkes Booth?
He fled to a farm in Virginia where he was later found and shot by an Intelligence officer (though some dispute this and insist he got away).
What was the last confederate victory?
Defending a Union attack on Palmetto Ranch in Texas, which was in violation of the cease-fire agreement
What was the largest surrender of the Confederacy?
Joseph Johnston's surrender of the Army of Tennessee to Sherman
What happened to the agreement that Sherman and Johnston drafted upon Johnston's surrender?
It was sent to Washington and, in the wake of Lincoln's assassination, it was rejected
What happened to Jefferson Davis at the end of the war?
He was captured in May, 1865, near Irwinville, Georgia
What did the Union do with Jefferson Davis after his capture?
They charged him with treason, held him for two years, but never tried him
Where did Confederate officials escape to after the war?
Mexico
What did many high-ranking Confederates become after the war?
Insurance company executives
How many fought in the Civil War
More than 3 million
How many Americans died in the Civil War?
Over 600,000 men -- 2% of the population
What were the total casualties of the war (dead and wounded)?
1.1 million
What human costs of the war were, in general, unique to the South?
Many Southerners were left homeless and starving after the war
How much did the Union spend on the war?
$1.3 billion
What were the total war costs estimated at?
$6.1 billion (extending past the war)
How did the Union pay for the War?
Raising taxes, issuing greenbacks, and starting the national bank
What was the primary source of funding for the Confederacy during the war?
Treasury bonds ($150 million), none which was ever repaid, and printing more currency, causing drastic inflation.
What happened to the South's economy as a result of the war?
It was virtually destroyed -- they lost 2/3 of their prior wealth
What kind of destruction did the South suffer as a result of the war?
Loss of railroads, industries, farm machinery, livestock, and homes
How did the Northern economy fare as a result of the war?
Northern wealth increased 50% from 1860 to 1870
After the war, did the south's representation increase or decrease?
Representation increased after the 1870 census, due to the the population of freedmen