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88 Cards in this Set

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In what way did Lincoln violate the constitution?
He suspended Habeas Corpus in 1861 and 1866
Beyond suspending Habeaus Corpus, what other illegal actions did Lincoln take?
Without asking Congress, he ordered a naval blockade of the South, increased the size of the army, and authorized illegal voting methods in the border states.
How did the Peace Democrats feel about Lincoln?
They thought he started an unjust war
What was the criticism of Radical Republicans toward Lincoln?
They thought he was too soft on the Confederacy
What did the 1862 Legal Tender Act do?
Authorized a national (paper) currency commonly referred to as greenbacks
How did the issuing of greenbacks help the Union?
It stabilized the Northern economy
Why was Congress issuing so much progressive legislation from 1861-1863?
Because there were no conservative Southerners to oppose it.
What did Lincoln's cabinet look like?
Cabinet consisted of opinionated Republican rivals who did not get along
Who in Lincoln's cabinet could be trusted?
Hugh McCulloch, Secretary of the Treasury
What problems did the Confederacy have with disunity?
Davis had trouble controlling the individual sates, especially within the constitution that they designed. He couldn't force governors to send troops or assist fellow Confederates who needed backup.
What was the financial cost of a weak central government?
States couldn't be forced to pay their fair share, resulting in serious economic troubles for the Confederacy.
In 1862, which side passed the Conscription Act, the first American draft?
The Confederacy
What was the Twenty-Slave Law?
A Confederate law that expempted owners of 20 or more slaves from the draft.
Who was exempt from the draft in the South?
Wealthy planters and landowners, and anyone whose job was vital to maintaining control over slaves
What was the key difference between the U.S. and C.S.A. constitutions?
The Confederacy made sure their constitution was weaker as they favored states rights, not a federation
What were the hopes of the South in regard to Europe?
Southerners believed that cotton was so essential to Europe that they would intervene in any civil war.
What did the South urgently need to do with Europe and Britain?
Secure international recognition and enter a military alliance
Britain recognized the Confederacy as what kind of power?
A belligerant power, which meant it could dock at their ports
What was the Trent Affair?
Union officers boarded a British mail ship (Trent) to arrest two Confederate diplomats. Britain threatened war unless Lincoln release the Southerners. Lincoln released them.
Did the Union threaten Britain with war during its own Civil War?
Yes, if they did not stop building warships for the Confederacy, and also when Canada harbored Confederate refugees in 1864.
What was Europe's position on the war?
They were detatched
Why could Europe do without cotton from the South?
They bought so much from the South because it was cheaper. When the South stopped shipments, Britain nurtured suppliers in India, Egypt, and Argentina and began buying from them. They also had large stores on hand.
Why was Union General McClellan nicknamed Young Napolean?
After taking over the Army of the Potomac, he replaced officers, set up camps, ran continual drills
Why was McClellan fired?
For failing to engage Lee in battle
How did the Union plan to take control of the Mississippi?
By approaching from two side: coming down the river to clear defenses in Tennessee, while taking the Navy up through the Gulf of Mexico through New Orleans
What was the final battle in controlling Mississippi?
Battle of Vicksburg, Mississippi
What was Ulysses S. Grant known as before the war?
A failed peacetime soldier and a drunk
What was Grant's nickname during the war?
Unconditional Surrender Grant
How was Grant different from other Union generals?
He was very strategic and logistically oriented, as well as willing to make aggressive sacrifices for victory
What was Grant's strategy?
To engage the Confederate Army in multiple theaters at once
What war strategy was Wiliam T Sherman known for?
Total War Strategy
What is limited war vs. total war?
In limited war, armies fight each other, inflicting minimal damages on civilian & private property; in total war, civilians and property are fair targets
Early in the war, why was General William Sherman (temporarily) relieved of his command?
No one believed his estimates of needed troops (or the length of the war) and they judged him insane
What was the relationship between Grant and Sherman?
After serving together at the Battle of Shiloh, they became friends
What was General Carlos Beull fired for and who replaced him?
Not pursuing retreating Confederate troops; replaced by Rosecrans
What was the unfortunate side effect of Lee's win over the Peninsula Campaign?
His win spurred the Union to switch from an approach of limited war to total war
Who built warship for the confederacy?
Britain
What were ironclads?
Steam-propelled warships armoured with iron or steel plates.
What was the original name of CSS Virginia?
USS Merrimack -- renamed when she was rebuilt in Britain as an ironclad.
How did the CSA get the Virginia/Merrimack?
They captured the USS Merrimack from the Union
What was the USS Monitor?
A Union ironclad designed by the Swedish engineer John Ericsson, built in the U.S.
What was the Anaconda Plan?
Union General-in-Chief Winfield Scott's strategy for subduing the the South blockading Southern ports and advancing down the Mississippi river to cut the South in two.
Why did the Union want a Naval blockade?
Because by cutting the South off from trade with Britain, they'd be in a financial crisis.
What is a blockade runner?
A vessel or a captain whose job it is to evade the Naval blockade.
What were commercial raiders?
Private vessels authorized by the Confederacy to raid (pillage) U.S. merchant ships.
In what battle did the CSS Virginia and USS Monitor meet?
Duel of Hampton Roads
What was the Battle of the Ironclads and how did it resolve?
A sea battle between the CSS Virgia and the USS Monitor, which ended in a draw
Who was the "most promising officer" to whom Lincoln first offered command of the Union army -- and what happened?
Robert E. Lee, who, despite wanting to preserve the union, chose to remain loyal to the state of Virginia and instead accepted control of the Confederate militia
What was Robert E. Lee known for?
Devotion to duty and tactical acumen in battle
To which historic general was Lee often compared?
General (and President) Washington
What was General Lee's strategy in the war?
Swift attacks by concentrated forces against their larger foe
Who did General Lee replace to command the Army of North Virginia?
Johnston, who was wounded
Why was Confederate Thomas Jackson nicknamed "Stonewall"?
Because he was fearless against the Union army
What kind of General was Jackson?
Remote, demanding, and efficient
What was a key strategy of General Jackson?
To "always mystify, mislead and surprise the enemy if possible" (for which he used the Calvary)
What was the intent of Stonewall Jackson's Shenandoah Campaign?
To divide and conquer the Union army
What important port did the Union capture in 1862?
New Orleans
Who were the commanders on both sides at the battle of Shiloh?
Grant (Union); A.S. Johnston & Gen Beauregard (Confederacy)
In what battle did more Americans fall than in all previous wars combined?
Battle of Shiloh (aka Battle of Pittsburg Landing) in April of 1862
Who won in the Battle of Shiloh?
The Union
What might have clinched the Union victory at Shiloh?
Capture of Fort Donelson
What was the Hornet's Nest?
A defensive Union position at the Battle of Shiloh that gave them the upper hand against a superior force
What general fell at the Battle of Shiloh and who replaced him?
A.S. Johnston was killed and General Beauregard replace him
Why was their a call to remove Grant after Shiloh, given that he won the battle?
Because the Union losses were so high -- Grant had a reputation for being willing to sacrifice his men
Who was Albert Sidney Johnston?
Commander of th Western Confederate forces and highest ranking officer killed in the war (Battle of Shiloh), which Confederate President Davis saw as "a turning point in our fate"
Which generals lead the battle at the Second Battle of Bull Run in 1862?
John Pope (Union) and Robert E Lee (Confederate)
Whose victory was the Second Battle of Bull Run?
The Confederacy
What was the most shocking thing for the Union at the second Bull Run?
Destruction of the Union supply depot
What was the bloodiest single day of the war?
Battle of Antietam (aka Battle of Sharpsburg) on September 17, 1862, with about 23,000 casualties.
What were Robert E Lee's hopes in invading Maryland?
That it would convince the state to secede
Who fought Lee at the Battle of Antietam?
General George McClellan
Who won the Battle of Antietam?
The Union -- narrowly
What did the Battle of Antietam lead to?
Encouraged Lincoln to give Emancipation Proclamation and prevented Lee from invading the North
What went wrong with McClellan and why was he dismissed?
McClellan was often covinced he was outnumbered and at Antietam, kept did not concentrate forces effectively and would not employ his reserve force. He failed to follow up on Antietam and destroy Lee's army.
Who replaced General McClellan the second time he was dismissed?
General Ambrose Burnside
Which generals led the battle at Fredricksburg?
Union: Burnside, Confederacy: Lee
Who won the Battle of Fredricksburg in 1862?
Confederacy
In the Overland Campaign, how did Lee's army compare to Burnside's army?
Lee's was smaller, but more aggressive
What was notable about the Battle of Fredricksburg?
It was one of the most one-sided battles in the war
What happened to General Burnside after the Battle of Fredricksburg?
He was replaced by Joseph Hooker
What did General Hooker do to improve the Union Army?
Expanded and revised the role of the Calvary
What was the significance of Marye's Heights in the Battle of Fredericksburg?
It enabled the Confederate army to inflict great casualties upon the Union army while shielding themselves (all 14 attacking Union brigades were destroyed)
What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?
Freed all slaves in the Confederacy
Why did Lincoln make a statement freeing slaves in land he did not control?
Because it tied the issue of the war to slavery
How did Lincoln justify the Emancipation Proclamation?
As a military necessity
What slave states were not affected by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation?
Border states, because the proclamation only applied to states not under Union control
Why didn't the Emancipation Proclamation address slavery in the border states?
Lincoln needed to keep these states within the Union to maintain the Northern advantage; it was too risky to offend them
What sort of document is the Emancipation Proclamation?
A set of two executive orders, based on the presidents war powers (a military act).