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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Civil war was NOT all about slavery
- North thought they were preserving Union
- South wa fightning for states' rights
The Civil War and the Confederacy
Confederate control was greater than Union control had been
Jeff Davis
-suspended habeas corpus to maintain control
South changes
Rapid economic growth = inflation
conscription = military draft (more poverty)
CLASS CONFLICT (rich could hire people to serve)
The Civil War and the Union
North economy boomed from war manufacturing. Southerners sold crappy cloths (shoddy) and the Southern gov. looked the other way for a bribe.
North changes
Inflation also, very slight
Unions formed

Lincoln increased power - suspended habeas corpus (mainly to prevent Maryland from succeeding)

Began printing national currency (before states printed)
National Bank strenghtened
1862 - act passed that if you support South (even with taxes), slaves freed
Lincoln did not enforce it
Emancipation Proclamation
did NOT free slaves.
instead, it said on January 1, 1863, government would liberate slaves in states of rebellion (not in border states)
EP cons
prohibited slavery where Union couldn't control
EP pros
declared war was about slavery
EP effects
Escaped slaves and free slaves joined Union Army

Discouraged Europe supporting/trading with Confederate gov.
Thirteenth Amendment
COMPLETELY abolished ALL slavery
Hampton Roads Conference
Lincoln offered 5 year delay on amendment and $400 million to slave owners, but Jeff. Davis was committed to independence
Election of 1864
Both favored end to the war

Everything went the North's way after the almost-negotiation
Freedman's Bureau
helped newly liberated blacks establish a place in society (schools, food, etc)
Lincoln dead
Right before final surrender
Civil War conditions
ENORMOUS economic and personal cost. HUGE debts. South was decimated (Sherman's March to the sea where everything was burned)
Other impacts
Central gov. became stronger in general and remained so
After war questions
(1) How should they be readmitted
(2) Status of blacks
interested in chance to earn wages and own property
Johnson (VP now President)
Southern democrat
Congress in Recess
He was against South's elite planters (he was a poor yeoman)
Johnson's Reconstruction (aproved by Lincoln)
(1) creation of provisional military gov
(2) southerners take loyalty oath to get amnesty from rebellion (except wealthy)
(3) hold state constitutional convention and write new constitution that ELIMINATED SLAVERY and DENOUNCED SECESSION
Why it didn't work
Blacks weren't citizens
He pardoned many Southern Elite, who retook power positions

Replace "black" with "Freedman"
Confederate high-ranking officials were elected to Congress

Northerners refused to seat them
(1) Conservatives agreed with Johnson
(2) Radicals wanted punishment
-distribution of land to poor and freedmen
-democratic rights (previously, few elections as much as appointments)
Johnson declared Reconstruction over and failed to compromise
Response by radicals - Congressional Reconstruction = (a) Fourteenth Amendment (prohibited states from depriving citizen of life, liberty, property)
(b) let everyone vote or loose representation
(c) previous Confederate officers could not serve
(d) excused Confederacy war debt

Military Reconstruction Act of 1867.
Forced black suffrage.
Every state needed to ratify Fourteenth Amendment. (They limited Johnson's power first).
Impeachment proceedings
violating the Tenure of Office Act - Johnson fired Secretary of War without consulting Senate
Ulysses S. Grant
Fifteenth Ammendment
required states to enfranchise black men (as citizens). Passed only because South needed to ratify it to get into the Union. (North oppposed)
Reconstruction success
- ALL Southern white men can vote now.
- govenors were ELECTED
-reform movements (industry/railroads)
Ultimately, Reconstruction failed.
a LOT of money to reconstruct = high taxes

Southerners who cooperated with reconstruction
Northerners that ran the south (bags to stuff with ill gotten wealth)
attacked supporters of Reconstruction
Did not redistribute weatlh
same power structure
South knew when North left, it would be just about the same as before
Northern slack
Grant enforced law loosely to loosen tensions
1860s, 1870s
Supreme Court restricted Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
Slaughter House
Fourteenth Amendment applied to FEDERAL, not state gov
United States v. Reese
"grandfather clauses" on voting privileges (prevented blacks from voting)
1872 Election
Liberal Republicans - Greeley (ended federal control due to corruption)
Panic of 1873
drew attention from Reconstruction
Rutherford B. Hayes president
final withdrawal of troops from the South
Southern blacks during and after reconstruction
Freedman's Bureau helped find jobs/housing/food/money/schools

No land => sharecropping (trading portion of crop for right to work on someone else's land)

= slavery-ish
Black communities
Blacks that saw the situation, were unhappy, and moved to Kansas/Midwest