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82 Cards in this Set

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Fred Shuttlesworth
Fred Shuttlesworth
2. Project C
Project Confrontation
b. Confronting segregation on as many levels as possible
c. Use as many tactics and strategies as possible
Launched by SCLC
Called for King to be arrested, didn't
want another defeat like in Albany, GA
This is where his famous letter from
Birmingham Jail
Children were used to protest
almost 1,000 children in jail.
Jails became overcrowded
4. Mobilizing vs. organizing
Mobilization
King and SCLC
King never organized a campaign
When something as going on, King was asked to show up so they could get media attention.
Organization
SNCC
Send 2-3 people in, try to get a place to stay, move in, talk to people, who were the natural leaders, looked for the organic leadership in the community
Stay around, help people organize themselves.
5. Albany, GA
5. Albany, GA
MLK was to give a speech here and then
was asked to join in on the campaign
MLK didn't plan to stay, only planned to
give speech but in the heat of the
moment he accepted
Boycotts and sit-ins ensued, many went
to jail (that was the idea, to crowd the
jails)
Pritchett (chief of police) made sure
not to abuse protesters, jailed them
quietly
Someone bailed out everyone (not part
of the plan)
Could not continue for fear of federal
trouble and King left Albany in shame
22. Albany, GA
Infamous defeat of MLK
Went to Albany to give a speech for
SNCC
Was then asked to lead the movement
which was not part of the plan (didn't
even pack an over night bag, was just
supposed to deliver a speech)
Agreed to get involved and implemented
non-violent action (sit-ins, boycotts)
The jails were being filled and filled but
weren't running out of room
Once they started running out someone
bailed out the prisoners without MLK's
knoweledge
The movement ended because of this
6. A.G. Gaston
a. Millionaire black
b. Owned motels
c. That's where King stayed
d. Part of the business establishment in Birmingham
7. David Vann
Mayor of Birmingham
Moderate
Changed the 3 member commission to a
mayor and nine-member council
b. Certain kind of reforms in Birmingham
but nothing radical
8. Bombingham
So many fire bombings and bombings
in general Birmingham got the nickname
KKK behind many of these bombings
Police were filled with KKK members so
when blacks complained, hardly any sort
of investigation was undertaken
9. ACMHR Alabama Christain
Movement for Human Rights
Went through the courts to tear down
segregration in Birmingham
Shuttlesworth, a minister, was president
Created by the SCLC
Had a large church following
Bus desegragation, school integration,
mass meetings, sponsered freedom rides
Invited King to Brimingham
10. Eugene "Bull" Connor
a. Bull Connor- commissioner for public safety, head of police and fire, made sure police didn't go to the Freedom Riders, gave the mob 30 minutes to "rough up" the Freedom Riders, KKK, nobody will be arrested for this. Civil rights movement was communist plot, blacks one step above monkeys.
11. James Bevel
11. James Bevel
Worked with SCLC, helped with
Birmingham cmapaign
Was behind the Children's Crusade in
which children were sent to protest in the
face of police burtality, dogs, and
fire hoses
Worked with voting rights movement
12. Diane Nash
Worked with Freedom Riders, co-founder
of SNCC, worked on voting rights in AL
Arrested dozens of time during Birm
campaign
13. Children's Crusade "D Day"
13. Children's Crusade "D Day"
On May 2nd, more than 1,000 students
skipped school and went to the 16th st
Baptist Church for a mass civil rights
meeting
They were ordred to march downtown
and try to meet the mayor to integrate
facilities
They filled up the jails, no one was killed
but many suffered injuries
The next day, fire hoses and dogs were
put on the protesers
14. 16th st. Baptist Church
a. 4 girls killed in bombing
b. Friends of Angela Davis
c. White terrorism is a reality
15. George Wallace
15. George Wallace
Ran for president 4 times, pro-segregation
Was the guy that stood infront of U of A
in order to stop a black from enrolling
17. March for Jobs and Freedom
17. March for Jobs and Freedom
March on Washington where MLK gave
his famous I Have A Dream speech
Others spoke such as SNCC, female
singers (no speakers though)
About 200-300k people showed up
Was 100% peaceful
Put pressure to pass the Civil Rights Act
18. Bayard Rustin
a. Beginning of the revolution in the South
b. New phase for the struggle in the South and pushes North
19. John Lewis
19. John Lewis
Part of SNCC organized sit-ins, bus
boycotts and non-violent protests for
voting and racial equality
Was one of the original Freedom Riders
Nearly beatne to death in Montgomery
Became chairman of SNCC
Spoke at March on Washington
21. Charles Sherrod
21. Charles Sherrod
Key member of SNCC
First field secretary of SW Georgia where
the Albany movement took place
Wasn't happy with King's involvement
because of popularity
He would fly in, some media would come,
but as soon as he left the media left
He didn't bring much help with him
24. Charles Moore
24. Charles Moore
Civil rights photographer
Took many pictures such as three teens
beings hosed in Birmingham which
appeared in numerous magazines and
newspapers nationally and internationally
Took a picture of MLK being arrested
Brought a lot of attention to movement
Showed what was really going on in the
South besides words
23. Miles College
23. Miles College
Many students and faculty members were
involved in the movement in
Birmingham
Started a "selective buying campaign" in
which stores that segregated were
boycotted
6. “Drunken Pig,”
Help
7. Amzie Moore,
Help
9. In Friendship,
Inspired by the historic bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955, Baker co-founded the organization In Friendship to raise money to fight against Jim Crow Laws in the deep South. In 1957, Baker moved to Atlanta to help organize Martin Luther King's new organization, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). She also ran a voter registration campaign called the Crusade for Citizenship.
10. James Lawson,
was a leading theoretician and tactician of nonviolence
southern director for CORE and began conducting nonviolence training workshops for the SCLC
Lawson became pastor of Centenary Methodist Church in Memphis, Tennessee in 1962. In 1968, when black sanitation workers went on strike for higher wages and union recognition after two of their co-workers were accidentally crushed to death, Reverend Lawson served as chairman of their strike committee
11. McComb campaign,
In 1961, Black voter registration in the Deep South is entirely controlled by the white power-structure. Began a voters' registration project. many people were arrested, some killed (herbert lee). SNNC lead movement
12. Herbert Lee,
Member of NAACP in MS
Tried to register to vote with SNCC
Shot and killed by white politician
13. Massive Resistance,
Brown decision was made, south said "never" then he said that the response of the south was massive resistance and "was this the beginning of the new civil war?"
project c, mass protests, etc.
15. Elizabeth Ecford,
one of the little rock nine
didnt get the message that everyone was meeting up to go in together.
was met with a mob alone and was not allowed inside the school
she waited for the bus as the white mob surrounded her
a white woman took her back home in her car
17. Brenda Travis,
sat in a whites only greyhound bus station in McComb
was arrested with her two friends
she was expelled from her school
sent to reform school
100 students took a stand for her and all got expelled
18. Central High School,
this was where the little rock nine went to high school
at first the were not allowed in because police blocked them
then military sent in to escort the students through the white mob and police officers (before this it was just up to the police officers and it was chaos)
19. SCEF,
Southern Conference Educational Fund
aimed to help black and white people work together for social justice.
Baker involved
21. Derrick Bell,
was the first tenured African-American professor of Law at Harvard University,
22. Gloster Current,
former NAACP Director of Branch and Field Services, and member of the “old guard” of NAACP Civil Rights activists
was appointed the Chair of the Detroit Youth Council Central Committee
23. Greensboro Four,
The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests which led to the Woolworth's department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States
four students from the Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina sat down at the lunch counter inside the Woolworth's store white's only counter
recruited 20 more students
news reporters covered event
300 on the 4th day
24. VEP
Voter Education Project
endorsed by the Kennedy administration in hopes that the organizations of the civil rights movement would shift their focus away from demonstrations and more towards the support of voter registration
new mass student movement tarnishing international US reputation (fighting cold war, trying to gain support from racially downtrodden nations
NAACP, CORE, SCLC, and SNCC formed the Voter Education Project (VEP) under the auspices of the non-profit Southern Regional Council (SRC)
helped in rural areas
violence increased as Kennedy thought it would decrease
25. Greenwood,
a center of protests and voter registration struggles
hundreds were arrested in nonviolent protests; civil rights activists were subjected to repeated violence, and whites used economic retaliation against African Americans who attempted to register to vote
KKK strong influence
near emmit till
Allard K. Lowenstein
a liberal Democratic politician, a one-term congressman representing the 5th District in Nassau County, New York
participated in the Mississippi civil rights movement during his tenure at NCSU, sparking controversy throughout North Carolina.
later organized the "Dump Nixon" campaign.
Fannie Lou Hamer
She was instrumental in organizing Mississippi Freedom Summer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC),
singing Christian hymns, such as "Go Tell It on the Mountain" and "This Little Light of Mine," to the group in order to bolster their resolve. The hymns also reflected Hamer's belief that the civil rights struggle was a deeply spiritual one.
was thrown in jail and beaten with her fellow civil rights activists, took over a month to recover
returned to Mississippi to organize voter registration drives, including the "Freedom Ballot Campaign", a mock election, in 1963, and the "Freedom Summer" initiative in 1964.
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
largest political rally for human rights in United States history
Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech
A. Philip Randolph, organized with Rustin, James Farmer (CORE), John Lewis (SNCC), MLK (SCLC), Roy Wilkons (NAACP), Whiteney Young (NUL)
Controversy over John Lewis' speech because of the concentration of animosity (many lines were taken out)
Letter from Birmingham Jail
written by MLK
arrested for his part in the Birmingham campaign, a planned non-violent protest conducted by the ACMHR and SCLC segregation by Birmingham's city government and downtown retailers.
wrote it while in solitary confinement on newspapers and napkins
this was in response to the criticisms he was receiving ("outside agitator", needs to wait)
Wait means never
Sam Block
SNCC organizer in Mississippi
repeatedly beaten and imprisoned as he fought for voting rights for blacks in his native Mississippi Delta during the 1960's
Greenwood campaign
In Mr. Block's first six months in Greenwood, Look magazine reported in 1963, he managed to sign up only five black voters. (shows difficulty in MS)
Kelly Miller Smith
a Baptist preacher, author, and prominent activist
He founded the Nashville Christian Leadership Council in 1958 which helped organize and support student sit-in demonstrations in the Nashville area.
Reverend Smith also served on the executive board of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference from 1955 until 1969. In 1969 he accepted the position of assistant dean of the Divinity School at Vanderbilt University, where he served until his death in 1984.
Nashville Movement
Nashville sit-ins, which lasted from February 13 to May 10, 1960, were part of a nonviolent direct action campaign to end racial segregation at lunch counters in downtown Nashville, Tennessee.
150 students were eventually arrested for refusing to vacate store lunch counters
a group of 13 lawyers, headed by Z. Alexander Looby helped the arrested students
Looby's home was bombed, no reported injuries
Later that day, nearly 4000 people marched to City Hall to confront Mayor Ben West about the escalating violence
Mayor upheld his segregationist stance
Some stores began to desegregate lunch counters
Constance Baker Motley
African American civil rights activist, lawyer, judge, state senator, and President of Manhattan, New York City.
The first African-American woman ever to argue a case before the U.S. Supreme Court, in Meredith v. Fair she successfully won James Meredith's effort to be the first black student to attend the University of Mississippi in 1962.
Anniston, Alabama
Anniston was the center of national controversy in 1961 when a mob bombed a bus filled with civilian Freedom Riders
As the bus burned, the mob held the doors shut, intent on burning the riders to death. An exploding fuel tank caused the mob to retreat, allowing the riders to escape the bus. The Riders were viciously beaten as they tried to flee the burning bus
"Sacrifice for Dignity."
Over Easter Weekend, Ella Baker of the SCLC helped organize a conference of sit-in students from around the nation. Held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina, the conference was dubbed the "Sacrifice for Dignity." Older organizations such as SCLC, CORE, and NAACP hoped that the students would create a youth organization inside of them. Baker, however, encouraged the students to form an independent organization. They formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced "snick") to lead the sit-in effort.
Ella Baker
Important organizer in black freedom struggle
60 year of activism
Cutting edge on whatever was being done
Urban League, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC
Allegiance to cause, not organization
Trying to create a mass based structure, wanted to use NAACP to do that

Stay around, help people organize themselves. You were never a leader (Baker influence).
Freedom Vote
That fall, the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), an umbrella organization of local and national civil rights groups founded in 1962, organized the Freedom Vote. The Freedom Vote had two main goals:

To show Mississippi whites and the nation that blacks wanted to vote and
To give blacks, many of whom had never voted, practice in casting a ballot
The mock vote pitted the actual candidates against candidates from the interracial Freedom Party. 60 white students from Yale and Stanford Universities came to Mississippi to help spread word of the Freedom Vote. 93,000 voted on the mock election day, and the Freedom Party candidates easily won. [45]

After the success of the Freedom Vote, SNCC decided to send volunteers into Mississippi during the summer of 1964, a presidential election year, for a voter registration drive. It became known as Freedom Summer.
Gloria Richardson
Cambridge Movement, Maryland
organizing the Cambridge Nonviolent Action Committee (CNAC).
targeted Cambridge for a desegregation campaign of public accommodations.
stepped down in 1964 moved to NYC and worked with SNCC
Autherine Lucy
was the first black student to attend the University of Alabama,
She went on to attend Selma University in Selma, and the all-black Miles College
encouraged to go to U of A but would be difficult since it's all white
got NAACP's Motley and Marshall and Shores to help her
court order preventing the University from rejecting the admission applications of Lucy and her friend based upon their race
she was barred from all dormitories and dining halls
On the third day of classes, a hostile mob assembled to prevent Lucy attending classes. The police were called to secure her admission but, that evening, the University suspended Lucy on the grounds that it could not provide a safe environment.[5] Lucy and her attorneys filed suit against the University to have the suspension overturned. However, this suit was not successful and was used as a justification for her permanent expulsion.
Ernest Green
One of the little rock nine
was the first to integrate all white
highschool
Green was the first black to graduate from the school in 1958.
James Lawson
oined the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) during college
conscientious objector
enrolled at the Divinity School of Vanderbilt University, where he served as the southern director for CORE and began conducting nonviolence training workshops for SCLC
Lawson-trained activists launched the Nashville sit-ins to challenge segregation in downtown stores.
many of his students were involved in creating SNCC
Medgar Evers
involved in efforts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi.
became a field secretary for the NAACP.
involved in a boycott campaign against white merchants.
He was instrumental in eventually desegregating the University of Mississippi by mentoring James Meredith through his attempt to enroll, succeeding in 1962.
assassinated by a member of the WCC
Freedom Day
October 7, 1963, was one of the two days per month that citizens were allowed to go to the courthouse to apply to register to vote. SNCC and the DCVL mobilized over 300 Dallas County blacks to line up at the voter registration office in what was called a "Freedom Day".
After waiting all day in the hot sun, only a handful of the hundreds in the line were allowed to fill out the voter application, and most of the applications were denied
Supporting them were author James Baldwin and his brother David
Stokely Carmichael
participated in the Freedom Rides
first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
He popularized the term "Black Power"
Carmichael later became affiliated with black nationalist and Pan-Africanist movements.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed major forms of discrimination against African Americans and women, including racial segregation.
signed into law by LBJ
Voting Rights Act would follow
Proposed by JFK
Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson
worked with SNCC
succeeded James Forman as SNCC's executive secretary and was the only woman ever to serve in this capacity.
got involved in greensboro movement (sit-ins, got arrested)
involved in freedom rides
she was the originator of SNCC's "jail, no bail policy"
Laura McGhee
nvited civil rights organizers to stay at her Mississippi farm.
used the title on her farm as security for bail bonds to get civil rights workers out of jail. As a southern black woman challenging white men in positions of power, she soon found herself under fire; nightriders attacked her farmhouse, and police officers beat her and her sons with nightsticks whenever they had the chance
Voting Rights Act
outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S
prohibits states from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color."
Act established extensive federal oversight of elections administration, providing that states with a history of discriminatory voting practices
June Johnson
June began attending SNCC meetings in her early teens after
seeing a flyer about a mass meeting at one of the local
churches. Robert (Bob) Moses convinced her parents to
allow June to attend the meeting and subsequent voter
registration workshops.
June worked as a paralegal for North Mississippi Rural Legal
Services (1972-73). Throughout 1970’s she was actively
involved in lawsuits aimed at stopping racist practices of
Greenwood city and Leflore county
Daisy Bates
played a leading role in the Little Rock integration crisis
created the Arkansas State Press with her husband
elected president of the Arkansas Conference of NAACP branches.
Bates guided and advised the nine students, known as the Little Rock Nine, when they attempted to enroll at Little Rock Central High School,
lost funding after Eisenhower sent in national guard
moved to NYC to write memoir
Little Rock 9
group of nine AA highschool students who were the first to integrate and all-white school
met with much hatred by community members, white mobs blocking school
one kid was expelled for pouring hot chili on a kid for calling her dumb or something
everyone else graduated
Deacons for Defense
Self-defense group
22% black pop supports violents
Economic shift, opening space for more
Suffering, fed up
Bogalusa, LA
KKK
Brook Hays, death threats
Crosses burned, car bombs
KKK ambushes
MFDP
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
It was organized by black and white Mississippians, with assistance from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), to challenge the legitimacy of the white-only US Democratic Party.
trouble with blacks voting, getting registered, etc.
COFO organized MFDP based off of the success of the freedom ballot
Laurie Pritchett
The Albany police chief, Laurie Pritchett, carefully studied the movement's strategy and developed a strategy he hoped could subvert it. He used mass arrests but avoided the kind of dramatic, violent incidents that might backfire by attracting national publicity. Pritchett arranged to disperse the prisoners to county jails all over southwest Georgia to prevent his jail from filling up.
participatory democracy
There were three primary emphases to this new movement: (1) an appeal for grass roots involvement of people throughout society, while making their own decisions, (2) the minimization of (bureaucratic) hierarchy and the associated emphasis on expertise and professionalism as a basis for leadership, and (3) a call for direct action as an answer to fear isolation and intellectual detachment.[5] Ella Baker
a more collectivist model of leadership over the "prevailing messianic style of the period"
James Farmer
He was the initiator and organizer of the 1961 Freedom Ride, which eventually led to the desegregation of inter-state transportation in the United States.
co-founded CORE
went to college when he was 14 and was captain of debate team
At 21, Farmer was invited to the White House to talk with president Roosevelt (asked Mr. R why France and Britain were called leading freedom makers when they colonized Africa)
Formed CORE with FOR and became national director
Parchman Prison
freedom riders jailed there
The prison authorities forced the freedom riders to remove their clothing and undergo strip searches. After the strip searches, a man named Deputy Tyson met the freedom riders and began intimidating them.
The prisoners sang various songs to irritate Tyson and the other guards. (took away mattresses and bug screens to stop them)
didnt work, they felt bad, gave back the freedom rider's their stuff
many civil rights workers weren't so lucky and were beaten
NAG
nspired by the Greensboro Sit-ins, students at Howard University in Washington DC found the Nonviolent Action Group (NAG).
NAG members started SNCC
NAG students are soon sitting in at segregated area amusement parks such as Glen Echo Park in Maryland, participating in the Route 40 Project, supporting the Baltimore students at the Northwood Theatre protests, joining the Freedom Rides, and facing mob violence in Cambridge MD and the Eastern Shore.
small (never more than 50 members), lots of women involved
Minnijean Brown-Trickey
one of the little rock nine
She was suspended in December 1957 for dumping her bowl of chili on a white boy who blocked her way in the cafeteria, and expelled in February, for calling a girl “white trash” after the girl taunted her and hit her with a purse.
Deacons for Defense
Self-defense group
22% black pop supports violents
Economic shift, opening space for more
Suffering, fed up
Bogalusa, LA
KKK
Brook Hays, death threats
Crosses burned, car bombs
KKK ambushes
"We Shall Overcome"
About slavery auction block (being sold)
1946: food and tobacco women used this song
Pete Seeger
SNCC meetings
Freedom Stayout
Over 20,000 children -- about 22 per cent of Boston's public school population -- skipped classes yesterday in a Freedom Stay Out described by its leaders as a "resounding sucess."
flocked to the 34 Freedom Schools
Noel Day, co-director of the Freedom Stay-Out Committee,
protested de-facto segregation in Boston because of segregated living
Kenneth Clark
Leading psychologist in racial studies
Investigated when children began identifying the color of their skin and attributing meaning to it
His famous Doll Tests revealed a serious deficiency in self-esteem in terms of black children
They frequently said the white doll was nice while the black doll was ugly, a nigger, etc.
Evidence used in Brown v. Board of Ed case and helped win the case (Mamie Clark was instrumental in his success)
Charles V. Willie*
He is a sociologist whose areas of research include desegregation, higher education, public health, race relations, urban community problems, and family life
Student Voice
SNCC newsletter
Poor People’s Corporation,
In MS organized in 1965 in Mississippi by SNCC and CORE and COFO
The Poor People's Corporation was an early result of a change in focus of the Civil Rights Movement from confrontation to economic development. Through its headquarters here and a fund-raising office in New York City, the corporation collected financial support for enterprises providing jobs for Mississippi's rural unemployed and underemployed.
Ruth Batson
Proved that Boston had a race problem
From Boston
Had daughters in public school system
Ran NAACP education committee in Boston
Bring attention to poor quality of black public schools
Break down racial issues in the public school system
Jesse Jackson
Selma to Montgomery marches organized by James Bevel and MLK
worked in Chicago with SCLC
After MLK's assassination Beginning in 1968, Jackson increasingly clashed with Ralph Abernathy, King's successor as chairman of SCLC. In December, 1971, they had a complete falling out. Abernathy suspended Jackson for “administrative improprieties and repeated acts of violation of organizational policy.”
Created Operation PUSH and Rainbow Coalition which publicized governmental and political issues regarding race and economics
Jack O'Dell*
was a member of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA) but then withdrew to work with MLK in the south
target of FBI investigation
Operation Exodus
Freedom House also raised money to support Operation Exodus, a voluntary desegregation project that bused predominantly African American students from overcrowded schools in Roxbury and Dorchester to predominantly white, underenrolled schools in other parts of Boston
SNCC Freedom Singers
used to raise money for SNCC
One of the group's key founders was Cordell Hull Reagon, known for his many nonviolence training workshops and anti-segregation efforts in the Albany, Georgia area. Other founding members included Bernice Johnson (who later married Reagon), Charles Neblett and Rutha Harris. They traveled widely and won new fans at the 1963 Newport Folk Festival. In 1964 the group reformed as an all-male quartet with another Nashville native, Matt Jones.
Also acted as spreading the word of segregation and injustice, brought people together, spread the word