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38 Cards in this Set

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Name and describe the OSI (Open System Interconnect)Model Layers?
1. Physical - electrical and mechanical level(x.21, HSSI,MAC address)
2. Data Link - prep for transfer of data(PPP, SLIP, ARP)
3. Network - handles data routing(IP,ICMP)
4. Transport - negotiates the data exchange(TCP,UDP,SPX)
5. Session - coordinates conversations between apps(NFS,SQL,RPC)
6. Presentation - o/s that associates types of files to programs(TIFF,JPEG,MPEG)
7. Application - not the app, but supports the end-user app process(HTTP,FTP,SMTP,TELNET)
Name the TCP/IP Model layers?
1. Link(Network Access) - x.25,ethernet,token ring, frame relay(layers 1 & 2 of OSI)
2. Network(Internet) - IP, ARP, ICMP, IPsec) (layer 3 of OSI)
3. Transport(host-to-host) - TCP, UDP (layer 4 of OSI)
4. Application - HTTP, FTP (layers 5-7 OSI)
3.
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol - ARP matches ip address to an ethernet address.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol - used for diagnostics and error correction.
Ring Data Network Topology
network nodes are connected by unidirectional transmission links to form a closed loop.(token and FDDI)
Mesh Data Network Topology
Nodes are connected to every other node in the network. Backbone redundant.
Bus Data Network Topology
All transmissions of the network nodes travel the full length of the cable and are received by all stations. (Ethernet)
Tree Data Network Topology
A version of bus that invorporates the use of branches
Star Data Network Topology
Most used today. Nodes are connected to a central LAN device directly.
PPP Remote Access Protocol
Point-to-Point - i.e. Dial-up Networking (DUN)
PAP Remote Access Protocol
Password Authentication Protocol - not encrypted but typically easy to implement on any network
CHAP Remote Access Protocol
Challenge Handshake Protocol - authentication using an encrypted key.
SLIP Remote Access Protocol
Serial Link Internet Protocol - connecting one network to another over a single physical line or via modems.
EAP-TLS Remote Access Protocol
Extensible Authentication Protocol, Transport Layer Security - both client and server authenticate over TLS. Digital certificates are used.Can be confident user is authorized.
EAP-TTLS Remote Access Protocol
Tunneled TLS
EAP-PEAP Remote Access Protocol
Protected EAP - like EAP-TLS but easier to administer but less secure due to lack of client-side certificate.
FHSS Wireless Access Protocol
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum - Provides no error recovery. Splits available signal bandwidth and segments it.
DSS Wireless Access Protocol
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum - Splits contents of message into smaller bits and decoded at receiver end.
WAP Wireless Access Protocol
Wireless Application Protocol - over the internet
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy - uses shared secret between client and access point. Can be decrypted in a short time.
WPA
WiFi Protected Access - uses TKIP
WPA2
WEP Protected Access 2 - Supports IEEE 802.1ix authentication
Back-door
access through a preprogrammed, unknown access point using DUN or external network connection
Eavesdropping
Interception of network communication either passive or active
Piggybacking
Accessing the system with another user's valid entery, via incorrect logoff or open session.
Session Hijacking
Taking control of another user's network connection, via IP spoof.
Spoofing
Convincing a network device to perform an authorized action by masquerading as a trusted user, resource, or file.
Unauthorized Access
Users using their user name and password to access data they are not authorized for.
Buffer Overflow
DoS attack - receipt of an excessive amount of data.
Smurf Attack
DoS attack - causes severe congestion with ICMP ping response methods.
SYN Flood Attack
DoS Attack - A buffer of the TCP initialization flooded with connection requests.
Teardrop Attack
DoS Attack - An altered offset field in IP packets confusing the system, causing it to crash.
Dual-homed firewall
2 NICS, one on internal side and one on external side
Screened Host firewall
Uses a router to filter data before the data reaches the firewall.
Screened subnet firewall
Uses an external router to review data and bounce back as necessary before reaching the subnet.
3 Types of RAID
1. Failure Resistant Disk System(FRDS)
2. Failure Tolerant System.
3. Disaster Tolerant System.

only FRDS is currently developed.
3 Different types of Backup Methods
1. Differential - copy all cumulative changes since last full. (takes more space than incremental)
2. Incremental - copy data changes since the last full.
3. full
Trusted Network Interpretation(TNI) Evaluation Classes
D - minimal protection
C - discretionary protection
C1 - discretionary security protection
C2 - Controlled Access Protection (No off the shelf system goes higher than this)
B - Mandatory protection
B1 - Labeled Security Protection
B2 - structured protection
B3 - security domains
A1 - verified protection