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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is information technology?
the study, design, development, implementation, support, and management of computer based info systems.
Are computers smart?
NO! without people computers are just plastic boxes with chips. People are called end-users
What is computer competency?
knowledge to understand computers
What is an application of technology?
something with practical use and expected outcome
What's Moore's Law
computing power doubles every 18 months
Business computer hardware?
physical aspects of a computer--circuit boards, chipsets, and keyboards
Mainframe computers?
room sized computers that process and store big amounts of bulk data
Midrange computers?
less powerful and smaller than mainframe but do the same thing on smaller scale
Microcomputers?
smaller than mainframes and minicomputers. . .desktop, laptop, handheld
What are computers made of?
hardware and uses system software to work
What does application software need to work?
system software or an operating system
What is an operating system?
often called a platform, is a collection of computer programs working together that manage hardware&software to work properly
Some platforms today?
Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, Linux and UNIX
What is file management?
a way to store and organize computer files to the memory of a computer
What are operating systems made of?
folders!
What file management system does Microsoft use?
Graphical user interface (GUI)
What is a task a computer performs?
One or more task?
process and multitasking
What does memory management consist of?
cache, random access memory (RAM), registers, and virtual memory
Disk management?
in charge if reading and writing data and info to a disk
Most common apps?
email, word processors, databases, presentation software,and project management
Software suite/Productivity suite?
collection of computer application programs
What ways share data?
"cut and paste", Object linking and Embedding
OLE?
Object linking is dynamic, thats the only difference from embedding
Adobe Acrobat?
portable document files (PDF)
Database software?
collection of related files called tables that consist of records of data separated by fields
What is a computer network?
two or more computers connected for resource sharing and communication
What is system unit?
the main body of a computer
What is a motherboard?
the core component that connects and helps different components of a computer communicate with one another.
Box?
microcomputer, encloses main components of computer.
Circuit board?
logical way to replace what would be loose wiring by applying copper wires directly to a sheet of non conductive plastic
What is a microprocessor?
plugged directly into a slot on the motherboard and serves as the brains for the comp.
CPU?
central processing unit located in microprocessor
A microcomputer's speed is measured by?
clock rate; cycles per second that a computer can perform its basic tasks
Gigahertz is what unit?
clock rate
RISC?
Reduced Instruction Set Computer architecture chips are for efficiency and were the 1st 64 bit processors
What is a bus line?
pathways that transfer data and power between components inside of a computer.
Types of bus lines?
PCI, AGP, USB, Firewire
Computers have only two states, so what kind of system is this?
binary system: 1 or 0
ASCII
microcomputers use the American Standard Code for information interchange coding scheme
What part of the computer supplies the electricity?
the power supply unit
What are the two types of memory?
primary (volatile) and secondary (non-volatile)
How does primary memory work?
its in the for of RAM chipsets that use no physical movement
Secondary?
typically spin and require moving read/write head
The programming information to perform the startup task resides in a chip called?
complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) also non-volatile
ROM?
read-only memory
Expansion slots receive?
expansion cards; plugged into motherboard and adds further functionality
Types of bus lines?
PCI, AGP, USB, Firewire
Computers have only two states, so what kind of system is this?
binary system: 1 or 0
ASCII
microcomputers use the American Standard Code for information interchange coding scheme
What part of the computer supplies the electricity?
the power supply unit
What are the two types of memory?
primary (volatile) and secondary (non-volatile)
How does primary memory work?
its in the for of RAM chipsets that use no physical movement
Secondary?
typically spin and require moving read/write head
The programming information to perform the startup task resides in a chip called?
complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) also non-volatile
ROM?
read-only memory
Expansion slots receive?
expansion cards; plugged into motherboard and adds further functionality
A .....is a specific outlet that serves as a connection between other devices
a port
"Plug and Play"
device automatically works when plugged into a computer. FireWire and USB
What is an input device?
data and info that enters a computer system and translated for processing
Output?
data and info that exits a computer system and translated for a human to understand
Input and output devices are usually called?
peripheral devices
What are some input devices?
Cameras, scanners, microphones, keyboards, mouse,webcams.
What are some output devices?
monitors, printers
The most important feature of a monitor?
resolution
Pixels?
small dots monitors are made of.
Registers?
extremely fast very small amounts of memory used to quicken implementations of computer programs
Virtual memory?
used to coordinate, track, and allocate the use of CPU cache, registers, RAM, and disk storage
Non-volatile, secondary storage that is recorded to a physical device
disk storage
File allocation table (FAT)
disk that directs the read/write arm of the hard drive to where data exits and accesses it
A program that reorganizes the hard disk
Defragmentation
Computers that are not connected to any other computer are?
stand-alone
Transmission control protocol (TCP)/ Internet protocol (IP)
operating systems need to be able to offer networking and do so through a set of rules
Proprietary software
Windows
Non-proprietary
Linux
Secondary storage is non‐volatile...
which means it retains its data and information even after the computer system is turned off.
Ones and zeros are referred to as
bit
When eight bits are combined, they become a
byte
Physical storage media represent
ones and zeros with positive or negative electromagnetic charges.
A negative charge represents a
zero (bit)
a positive charge represents
one (bit).
a track is a concentric circular band around the disk that is divided in to pie shaped wedges
called sectors.
More than one sector comprises a
cluster.
How much data and information can it hold?
capacity
How long does it take to restore data?
access time
Advances in technology?
Is this the best technology?
Is my data and information secure from outside sources?
security
Cost
How much does it cost to store and retrieve data?
Disaster Recovery
What happens in the case of disaster?
Any number of factors can go into data loss, like...
computer viruses, natural disasters, and human error.
Archiving is when?
data is no longer used on a daily basis, is stored electronically and can be accessed at a future date
Data backup refers to?
making copies of data, or computer files that can be restored in the event that the original files are lost.