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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
open circulation
An arrangement of internal transport in which blood bathes the organs directly and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid.
closed circulation
A type of internal transport in which blood is confined to vessels.
A vessel that carries blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body.
A vessel that returns blood to the heart.
A microscopic blood vessel that penetrates the tissues and consists of a single layer of endothelial cells that allows exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid.
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle contracts and the chambers pump blood.
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood.
countercurrent exchange
The opposite flow of adjacent fluids that maximizes transfer rates; for example, blood in the gills flows in the opposite direction in which water passes over the gills, maximizing oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide loss.
An oxygen storing, pigmented protein in muscle cells.
(1) One of the deadened, multilobed air sacs that constitue the gas exchange surface of the lungs. (2)One of the milk-secreting sacs of epithelial tissue in the mammary glands.
In invertebrates with an open circulatory system, the body fluid that bathes tissues.
The colorless fluid, derived from interstitial fluid, in the lymphatic system of vertebrate animals.
lymphatic system
A system of vessels and lymph nodes, separate from the circulatory system, that returns fluid and protein to the blood.
uric acid
An insoluble precipitate of nitrogenous waste excreted by land snails, insects, birds, and some reptiles.
The tubular excretory unit of the vertebrate kidney.
A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.
Bowman's capsule
A cup-shaped receptacle in the vertebrate kidney that is the initial, expanded segment of the nephron where filtrate enters from the blood.
loop of Henle
The long hairpin turn, with a descending and ascending limb, of the renal tubule, in the vertebrate kidney; functions in water and salt reabsorption
The male and female sex organs; the gamete-producing organs in most animals.
vas deferens
The tube in the male reproductive system in which sperm travel from the epididymis to the urethra.
corpus luteum
A secreting tissue in the ovary that forms the collapsed follicle after ovulation and produces progesterone.
The inner lining of the uterus, which is richly supplied with blood vessels
A female organ where eggs are fertilized and/or development of the young occurs.
A tube passing from the ovary to the vagina in invertebrates or to the uterus in vertebrates.
A microscopic structure in the ovary that contains the developing ovum and secretes estrogens.