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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pressure drop is proportional to _
Types of large arteries
-Conducting elastic arteries - pulmonary artery, aorta, carotid artery - expand during systole, relax during diastole, lessens fluctuations in BP and flow
- Distributing muscular arteries - distributes blood to specific organs - femoral and splenic - smooth muscle layers constitute 2/3 of wall thickness
Types of flow
Definition of ideal flow
Ideal flow has no interaction with the vessel wall
What makes fluid non ideal
Viscosity - blood has high viscosity because of RBC mainly and also blood proteins
What kind of flow do viscous fluids have
Turbulent or laminar
What is the relationship between flow and vessel in ideal flow
Flow is proportional to vessel area or square of vessel radius
Describe laminar flow
Flow that is slower near the wall - outside, move faster closer to center
Relationship of flow and vessel in laminar flow
Laminar flow varies with the fourth power of the radius
Most powerful determinant of resistance
Radius - inversely proportional to fourth power of the radius
What controls radius of the vessel
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Relationship between vessel length and resistance
Direct - tortuosities of the veins increase length and resistance of vessels
How does viscosity affect resistance
-Direct -
-Indirect - causes inverse relationship between resistance and fourth power of radius
Viscosity is increased by _
Decreased by _
Polycythemia - increased
Anemia and hypoproteinemia - decreased
Turbulent flow
Fluid flows in irregular fashion
What usually causes turbulent flow and how do you test for that
Atherosclerotic plaque that usually occurs at branch points
-Test by auscultating for bruits
Systolic pressure
Peak arterial pressure during systole
Diastolic pressure
Least arterial pressure during diastole
Pulse pressure
PP = SP - DP
Mean arterial pressure
MAP = DP + 1/3 PP
Vasoconstriction _ resistance
Which conditions show increased resistance
Capillary rarefaction, obstructions, excess blood volume, atherosclerotic plaque
Cardiac output
Heart rate * Stroke volume or
Mean arterial pressure - central venous pressure /total peripheral resistance
Essential hypertension
-When chronic resting pressure is more then 140/90, kidney not regulating blood pressure normally
-Also seen in polycythemia
Hypertensive crisis
-Acute large increase in BP
-Usually from excessive vasoconstriction due to cold medicine overdose or cocaine
-Low resting BP
-Blood loss, hypoprotenimea, dehydration, anemia, anaphylaxis
_ is required to cause blood flow against systemic resistance
Diastolic pressure
Isolated systolic hypertension
Reduced arterial compliance due to atherosclerosis
Isolated diastolic hypotension
May be due to aortic valve regurgitation
• Why are arteries referred to as ‘resistance vessels’?
This term is applied to arteries since their main function is to regulate central blood pressure and also the distribution of blood to individual organs by altering their resistance
Hypovolemia - causes
Extreme sweating
Cutaneous (burns)
Effect of hypovolemia
Reduced venous return and cardiac output
Compensation of hypovolemia
-Sympathetic activation causes vasoconstriction to organs that are not vital - GI, kidney
-Autotransfusion - reduction in capillary pressure causes shift from outside of capillary to inside
Heart failure causes decrease in _
Inotropic state
Regulatory mechanisms of BP
Neurological mechanism - arterial receptors help regulate arterial pressure, venous and atrial pressure help regulate volume
Hormonal regulation - renin- angiotensin- aldosterone system and ADH help in hemorrhage, atrial naturetic peptide promotes sodium excretion
-Kidney regulation - increased MAP increases salt and water excretion, decreased MAP decreases salt and water excretion