Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
spaces surrounding organs
Fish hearts
two-chambered, one atrium, one ventricle
Amphibian hearts
three chambered heart with two atria and one ventricle
Reptile heart
three-chambered heart although the ventricle is partially divided
Mammal and bird heart
four chambered heart with two atria and two ventricles
carry blood away from heart to organs throughout body
microscopic vessel with very thin porous walls
bring blood back to heart
human heart
-located beneath sternum
-cone-shaped and size of a fist
-surrounded by a sac with a two layered wall
-comprised mostly of cardiac tissue
-two atria have thin walls and function as collection chambers for blood returning to the heart
-ventricles have powerful walls that pump blood into organs
-has four valves that prevent back flow of blood
-heart chambers contract and relax in a rhythmic cycle
contraction phase of cycle
blood pressure
fluids exert a force called hydrostatic pressure against surfaces they contract, and it is that pressure that drives fluids through pipes
Blood Clotting
treatment for cuts and other breaks in skin
relaxation phase
double circulation
pulmonary and systemic circuit which insures flow of blood to brain, muscles, and other organs because blood is pumped a second time after it loses pressure in the capillary beds of the lungs
blood clotting
plasma protein; sealant always present in blood in inactive form
active form of fibrinogen that forms clots
disease characterized by excessive bleeding from even minor cuts and bruises
clot that's blood is blocked
heart attack
death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from prolonged blockage of one or more coronary arteries (vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart)
death of nervous tissue in brain
growths called plaques develop in inner walls of the arteries narrowing thier bore
hardening of the arteries (aggravated version of atherosclerosis)
high blood pressure that promotes atherosclerosis and increase the risk of heart attack and stroke
respiratory surface
part of an animal where oxygen from the environment diffuses into living cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out
positive pressure breathing
pushing air down the windpipe (ex. frogs)
negative pressure breathing
pulling air down into the lungs rather than pushing it in from above
sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the thoracic cavity, during inhalation, the contraction of the diaphragm causes it to descend like a piston enlarging the thoracic cavity and lowering the pressure in the lungs
tiny channels in lungs of birds through which air can flow continuously in one direction
breathing control centers
aid in setting basci breathing rhythm; located in two regions of the brain, the medulla oblongata and the pons
diving mammals have a higer concentration of this oxygen-storing protein in thier muscles