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5 Cards in this Set

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Which cytokines are active in a viral response, and what do they do?
IFN-alpha, beta, gamma; They activate PKR to control and shut down viral protein synthesis, and also activate NK/Tc cells that contribute to the cell-mediated response.
Why do viruses present a unique challenge to the immune system?
They are INTRACELLULAR pathogens; to inhibit the virus, the cell must be inhibited at the same time. Viruses change frequently by mutation and swapping genetic material from other strains.
What is the first response to a viral infection?
Secretion of IFN-a/b which activates innate antiviral activity
What is the primary purpose of IgA in an anti-viral response?
IgA is secreted in the mucous, so it is helpful in preventing entry of the virus into the body. Can block BINDING of virus to mucosal epithelial cells, FUSION of envelope with the host’s plasma membrane.
How do IgG and IgM function in anti-viral response?
-can prevent the virus envelope from fusing with the host cell.
-can act as opsonizing agents by binding the virus particles and then macrophages bind the Ab’s Fc region.
-can simply agglutinate viral particles
-can activate Complement and cause MAC attack of enveloped viral particles.