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34 Cards in this Set

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effector response
appropriate response of various cells/molecules to recognition of a foreign organism in order to neutralize or eliminate the pathogen.
memory response
secondary exposure to foreign organism; more rapid, heightened immune reaction to eliminate pathogen and prevent disease
immunis
exempt
immunity
state of protection from infectious disease
attenuated
weakened
vaccine
a weakened (attenuated) strain of vaccine is injected into organism to confer resistance to later infection
serum
the liquid, noncellular component of coagulated blood
Immunoglobulin
fraction of serum that neutralizes toxins, precipitates toxins, and agglutinates bacteria. active molecules in IG fraction: antibodies
Antibody
the active molecule in immunoglobulin fraction of serum
Why call it Humoral Immunity?
because it's mediated by antibodies which are in the body fluid - serum.
phagocytes
white blood cells that ingest microorganisms and foreign material.
Theory of cell-mediated immunity
cells like phagocytes, not molecules like antibodies in the serum, are responsible for immunity
Lymphocyte responsible for:
both cellular and humoral immunity
antigen
foreign material that binds with specific antibody
clonal selection theory
-lymphocytes express specific membrane receptors
-specificity is determined before exposure to antigen
-Ag binding to receptor activates lymphocyte - it proliferates.
Innate Immunity
first line of defense against infection; less specific immunity.

-components are present prior to infection, for PREVENTION
Adaptive Immunity
Specific;
Only starts if there is ANTIGENIC challenge.
-Special property: MEMORY
-Responds to first exposure to Ag in 5-6 days usually.
-Second response is better and faster.
4 Barriers of Defense in Innate Immunity
-Anatomic
-Physiologic
-Phagocytic
-Inflammatory
Anatomic barriers of Innate immunity
Skin:
-mechanical barrier (epidermis, dermis)
-acidic pH bars microbial growth (sebum)

Mucous Membranes:
-line conjunctivae, alimentary, respiratory, urogenital tracts
-mucus traps foreign particles.
-cilia moves them out.
-normal flora outcompete pathogens for attachment sites.
fimbrae/pili
hairlike protrusions on bacterium that allow them to adhere to glycoproteins/lipids on particular epithelial cells of mucous membranes.

-method of defeating innate immunity
Physiologic barriers of innate immunity
Temperature:
-Body temp inhibits some pathogens
-Fever response does too
Low pH:
-Stomach acid kills ingested pathogens
Chemical mediators:
-Lysozyme, Interferon, Complement, TLR, Collectins
Phagocytic/endocytic barriers of innate immunity
Cells endocytose/break down foreign macromolecules.

Special phagocytic cells kill and digest whole microorganisms.
Inflammatory Barrier of Innate Immunity
Tissue Damage or Infection induces leakage of vascular fluid which contains antibacterial serum proteins and phagocytic cells.
Lysozyme
cleaves peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell wall; part of innate immunity, physiological barrier
Interferon
produced by virus-infected cells to induce antiviral state
complement
serum proteins circulating in inactive state.
When activated, damage membranes of pathogenic organisms.

-Collectins are an example
Pattern recognition
-ability to recognize a given class of molecules.

-for innate immunity, these are molecules that are never found in eukaryotes so must be foreign.
Phagocytosis in Innate Immunity is conducted by:
Blood Monocytes, Neutrophils, Tissue Macrophages.
primary lymphoid organs
provide the right environment for lymphocytes to develop and mature in
secondary lymphoid organs
trap antigen from defined tissues/vascular spaces; The sites where adult lymphocytes interact with the antigens.
leukocytes
white blood cells
lymphocytes
the leukocytes of adaptive immunity.
HSC (hematopoietic stem cell)
the cell that gives rise to all blood cells!!!
stem cells
cells that can differentiate into other cell types; multiply by cell division