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45 Cards in this Set

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Body fluids
composed of molecules that move past one another freely; critical to the body's ability to function; about 50-70% of healthy body weight
intracellular fluid
within cell- 2/3 of blody fluid; potassium and phosphorus
extracelluar fluid
outside cell- 1/3 of body fluid; sodium and chloride
interstitial fluid
flows between cells that make up a particular tissue or organ
intravascular fluid
the water in the blood and lymph; plasma transports blood cells within arteries, veins, and capillaries
lean tissues have a lower or higher fluid content than fat tissues?
higher fluid content
Electrolytes
substance that disassociates in solution into electrically charged partiles ions; positive charge>sodium and potassium; negative charge>chloride and phosphorus
Functions of Body Fluids
fluids account for blood volume> BP increases when BV rises and vice versa; kidneys help regulate BV and BP
BV regulation
Fluids account for BV: antidiuretic hormone stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water reducing urine; renin responds to decreased BP; angiotensis II raises BP; aldosterone signals the kidneys to retain sodium and chloride, thereby retaining water
Functions of Body Fluids
fluids help maintain body temperature; high heat capacity of water meants that the temp. of our body fluids remain stable; sweating releases heat and cools body
Functions of Body Fluids
Protects and lubricates tissues; cerebrospinal fluid protects the brain and spinal cord; amniotic fluid protects the fetus; synovial fluid lubricates joints; deigestive juice moistens food for ease
Functions of Elecrolytes
Electrolytes help regulate fluid balance; water follows movement of electrolytes by osmosis moving to high concentration of electrolytes; allows for controlled movementof fluids into and out of cells; osmotic pressure keeps electrolytes in solution from drawing liquid toward them across semi-permeable membrane
Functions of Electrolytes
electrolytes enable nerves to respond o stimuli; movement of sodium and potassium across membranes of nerve cells changes the electrical charge across the membrane; this change in electrical charge carries the nerve impulse along the nerve cell
Functions of electrolytes
electrolytes signal muscles to contract; influx of calcium into the muscle from the exracellular space stimulates contraction; muscles can relax after contraction once the electrical signal is complete and calcium is pumped out of the muscle cell
Thirst mechanism (hypthalamus) prompts us to drink when it is stimulated by...
increased concentration of salt and other dissoved substances in the blood; a reduction in BV and BP; dryness of mouth and throat; DH signals kidneys to retain water
Most water is lost though the urine, what controls this?
kidneys control how much water is reabsorbed; excess water is processed by the kidneys and excreted as urine; insensible water is lost through the skin; other fluid loss> sweating, injury, surgery, high altitudes, diuretics
RDA of water?
2.7 liters for female, 3.7 liters for male; varies with age, weight, physical activity, environment
Too much water?
become overhydrated (rare); can result in a dilution of sodium
deficiency of water?
dehydration; infants and elderly are vulnerable
Dehydration
mild dehydration: poor performance, tired or sluggish, not feeling well
severe dehydration: increased body temp., mental confusion, and decreased BP
Sodium
fluid and electrolyte balance; associated with BP and pH balance in body; required for nerve impulse transmission; assists in the transport of certain nutrients into the body cells (glucose)
Recommended intake of Sodium
1500mg/day for certian pop.
2300mg/day for everyone else
1tsp salt=2400mg of sodium
high BP for high sodium diets
Too much sodium?
hypernatremia-abnormally high blood sodium; not from just eating too much salt; can happen to patients with congestive heart failure or kidney disease; results in high BV, edema, and high BP
Deficiency in sodium?
Hyponatremia- abnormally low blood sodium; can result from prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating; seen in athletes who drink too much water
High sodium foods
processed, fast foods: soups, frozen meals, snack chips, restaurant foods, packaged meals
condiments:table salt, soy sauce
Potassium
fluid and electrolyte balance; very important in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve impulses; high potassium helps maintain a lower BP
RDA of potassium?
4700mg/day
Sources of potassium?
fresh fruits, vegetables, dairy, whole grains; most salt substitutes are made from potassium chloride
Too much potassium?
hyperkalemia-a high blood potassium level; does not happen in healthy people; can occur to patients with kidney disease; can alter heart rhythm
Deficiency of potassium
hypokalemia- low blood potassium levels; can be seen in patients with kidney disease or diabetic ketoacidosis; can occur when taking certain diuretic medications; can occur with extreme dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea>leads to confusion, muscle weakness, abnormal heart rhythms
Chloride
coupled with sodium in the extracellular fluid to maintain fluid balance; part of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in stomach aiding digestion; assists the immune system; assists in the transmission of nerve impulses
AI of Chloride?
2300mg/day
Too much chloride?
all dietary chloride comes from salt; may lead to hypertension in salt-sensitive patients
Deficiency of chloride?
rare but can occur in people with eating disorders
Phosphorus
major intracellular negatively charged electrolyte; required for fluid balance; critical in bone formation; regulates biochemical reactions by activating or deactivating enzymes; found in ATP, DNA, RNA, cell membranes and lipoproteins
RDA for phosphorus?
700mg/day
Sources of phosphorus?
found in high amounts that contain protein such as meat, milk, eggs; more readily absorbed from animal sources
Too much phosphorus?
high blood phosphorus can occur with kidney disease or when taking too many Vit. D supplements; causes itchy skin, muscle spasms, convulsions
Deficiency of phosphorus?
they are rare
Heat stroke
occurs if the body's temperature regulation mechanisms fail; occurs in hot humid environments; include rapid pulse, hot, dry skin, high body temp; fatal during exercise in extreme heat
Hypertension
a chronic condition characterized by high blood pressure; systolic pressure over 140mmHg, diastolic pressure over 90mmHg
What causes hypertension?
95% of hypertension cases are unknown- primary or essential hypertension; 5% caused by kidney disease, sleep apnea, and salt sensitivity
How to reduce hypertension?
weight loss, increased physical activity, reduced sodium intake, more whole grains, fruits, veggies, low fat protein sources, DASH
Energy drinks
too much caffeine can cause: difficulty sleeping, nervousness, headaches, anxiety
Bottled waters
artesian, mineral, spring, well, purified, sparkling, seltzer, club soda, tonic water