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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Study of cells
Histology
How many primary tissue types are there?
4
What are the primary tissues and their general function?
Epithelial tissue: covers surface, lines organs and body cavities, forms glands
Connective tissue: supports, protects, binds
Muscle tissue: contracts
Nervous tissue: generates, transmits and receives impulses
6 characteristics of epithelial tissue
Cellularity: little extracellular matrix
Polarity: apical and basal surface
Attachment: basement layer
Avascularity: underlying connective tissue vascular
arrangement: into layers or sheets
high regeneration capacity: stem cells
intervation- able to feel sensation
4 functions of epithelial tissue
protection
control permeability: allows or don't allow absorption
sensation: intervation
secretion
One side of a membranous epithelial is exposed, To what is it exposed to?
Free surface or lumen
What is the other side of epithelial tissue attached to?
Basement membrane
List the 3 classifications based on cell layers
Simple= one layer
stratified= more than one layer
pseudostratified= overlapping, different levels, each in contact with basement layer
List 4 classifications of epithelial tissue based on shape
squamous= flat
cuboidal= cube & round nuclei
columnar= rectangular
What type of epithelial consists of a single layer of flattened cells?
simple squamous epithelial
where is simple squamous epithelial found?
And its function?
Alveoli, endothelium, mesothelium, inner lining of the cornea
and control permeability, reduce friction, secretion
what type of epithelial consists of multiple layers of flattened cells?
stratified squamous epithelial
what 2 forms of does stratified squamous epithelial take?
and where is it found?
keratinized stratified squamous epithelial
- epidermis: dorsal tongue, hard palate, gums
Non-keretinized stratified squamous epithelial
-mouth, pharynx, vagina, anus
general function of stratified squamous epithelial
protection against abrasions, pathogens and chemicals
type of epithelial of a single layer of cells that are similar in height and width
Simple cuboidal epithelial
where is Simple cuboidal epithelial found?
and function?
-portion of the kidney tubules, glands, ovarian surface, part of male urethra
-limited protection, secretion, absorption
type of epithelial consists of a single layer that are taller than they are wide?
simple columnar epithelial
what 2 forms does simple columnar epithelial take and where are they found?
-Ciliated simple columnar epithelial
- uterine tubes
-Non-ciliated simple columnar epithelial
- digestive tract, lining of stomach and intestines
The non-ciliated simple columnar epithelial form has finger-like projections on the apical surface of the plasma membrane, what are they and their purpose?
Microvilli
-increase the surface area and absorption
What type of epithelial consists of what appears to be more than one layer of cells that are taller than they are wide but where each cell is in contact with the basal lamina?
pseudostratified columnar epithelial
2 forms of pseudostratified columnar epithelial and where are they found?
-Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelial: respiratory tract, nasal, trachea, bronchi
-Non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelial: epididymis, male urethra, some glands
what type of unicellular gland is commonly found in simple columnar epithelial and what is its product
goblet cells and mucin
what type of epithelial consists consists of multiple layers of cells that change their shape in response to stretch
and where is it found and functions
transitional epithelial
- bladder, renal pelvis, ureters
-allow distention & recoil
Based on discharge of secretions there are two basic types of glands. What are they and how do they differ in where their products are secreted?
-exocrine: secrete through ducts onto a surface
-endocrine: secrete directly into interstitial fluid
6 functions of connective tissue
-structural framework
-transport: blood
-physical protection
-support/surrounding and binding of structures
- storage: fat
immunity: interferes with movement of invaders and house leukocytes
3 basic components of connective tissue?
cells
protein fibers
ground substance
what term is used for the combination of the two non-cellular components of connective tissue rather than the cells, determines its properties
matrix
what are the two basic types of connective tissue proper and what is the general role of each in the body?
-loose: packing material: fills spaces, cushion, support
-dense: provide strength and support: resist pull
what type of loose connective tissue is found deep in the dermis of the skin and surrounds blood vessels, muscles and nerves and general function?
areolar connective tissue

-allows independent movement and cushioning
what term is used for the shiny layers of binding tissue that surround and separate muscles and vessels
fascia
type of loose connective tissue is commonly known as fat and general function
adipose connective tissue
- energy storage and cushioning and isolation
type of loose connective tissue forms a structural framework in organs such as the liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow?
reticular connective tissue
general function of reticular connective tissue
provide supporting framework
what form of dense connective tissue had tightly-packed collagen fibers that are aligned parallel to applied forces?
- where is it found
dense regular connective tissue
-dermis, perichondrium, periosteum, joint capsules
what is the sheath that surrounds the bones formed by reticular connective tissue
periosteum
2 types of fluid connective tissue
-blood
-lymph
2 categories of supporting connective tissue and briefly describe the matrix of each
-cartilage: firm gel with protein fibers
-bone:rigid calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate with protein fibers
the spaces within the matrix of supporting connective tissue where the cells reside
lacunae
3 types of cartilage
-hyaline
-fibrocartilage
-elastic
type of cartilage is the most common and contains closely packed fine collagen fibers making it smooth and glassy looking?
hyaline cartilage
where is hyaline cartilage found
articular surfaces
nose
trachea
larynx
costal cartilage
fetal skeleton
epiphyseal plates
type cartilage contains elastic fibers making it flexible and resilient and where is it found
elastic cartilage
-epiglottis- external ear
cartilage has large fibers that tend to be arranged along the lines of stress in the region to resist compression, absorb shock, and prevent bone to bone contact and where is it found
fibrocartilage
-intervertebral disc, pubic symphysis, menisci
what kind of bone is solid and forms the outer shell of an individual bone
cortical bone
kind of bone that forms a latticework inside of individual bones
cancellous bone
for what purpose is the muscle tissue specialized
contraction
type of muscle is striated, multinucleate, voluntary, and found in what we generally call muscles
skeletal muscle
type of muscle is striated, involuntary, and forms the myocardium?
cardiac muscle
what do we call the specialized regions that connect one cardiac muscle cell to another and help coordinate the activities of these cells
intercalated discs
type of muscle is non-striated, involuntary, and found in areas such as the respiratory tract, blood vessels, digestive tract, reproductive tract, urinary tract, and attached to the base of hair follicles?
smooth muscles
what purpose is neural tissue specialized
conduction of electrical impulses
parts of the neuron
-cell body
-dendrites
-axon
-contains the nucleus
-receives incoming signals
-transmits signals away from the cell body
which of the 2 basic cell types in neural tissue occur in several different varieties and have such tasks as providing a supporting framework for neural tissue, regulating the composition of the interstitial fluid surrounding neural tissue and providing nutrients to the impulse conducting cells of the nervous system
glial cells
-support cells of the nervous system