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46 Cards in this Set

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urochordata
-sea squirts

-adults are sessile but larvae swim around like fish

-filter feeding

-pharengeal gills-used for feeding/pumping water throughout body to filter out food
Cephalochordata
lancelets

-external fertalization
-adults burrow and filter feed
through pharengeal gills

-have cheveron like muscles-stream lined bodies
Myxinoidea
-hagfish (Slime eel)

-cartilaginous skeleton
-no jaws/teeth
-tooth plate with keratin
-scavengers
petromyzontoidea
lampreys

-jawless (have suctional disk)
-parasitic-suck onto animal and suck blood out
-keratin on tongue scrapes hole and drinks blood

-external fertalization

-semelparous-breed once and die
-anadromous-live in sea water and breed in fresh water
Ordavician period
-480mya
-jawless fish first appeared
-bone
-endoskeleton- bony plates show upwell
-head shields preserves best

-deposit/filter feeder w/ excellent defensive armor
cartiliage
510 mya

-gel
-fibers-collagen
-few cells
-not stiff
bone
480 mya

-lots of cells
-metabolically active-need lots of oxygen to live
-stiff and strong
-calcium phosphate
Silurian period
430 mya
-jaws
Chonxrichtyes
-sharks, rays, ratfish

1000 species

-cartiligous
-skeleton is made of cartilage
-protrusible upper jaw
-paired fins-evolution of arm later
Actinopterygian
fishes
most diverse-25,000 species

diversification was because of jaws (had 2)

-oral jaws-capture food
-pharyngeal jaws-process food

bony skeleton
Actinistia
Coelacanth

-has a big fin lobe that has skeletal elements
Dipnoi
Lung fish

-had lungs
Transition to land
-fins-> limbs
-support body weight verticle column needed to get stronger
-respiration-gills and skin-> lungs

-feeding-filter feeding and suction and biting-> biting always

needed to learn how to duck
Amphibia
tetrapoda
tiktaalik
could duck its head to bite
skeletal fins with fin over lays
Why move to land?
-oxygen
-escape from predators
-less competition for food
-water evaporation
Echinoderms have 5 lineages
1) sea cucumbers
2) feather stars
3) brittle stars
these are filter/.deposit feeders

4)Asteroidea-starfish
5)echinoidea-sea urchins
Asteroidea
1700 species

adults are not bilateral
-carnivorous
-eat porifera/cnidarians, mollusks, starfish and fish

crown of thorns- eat coral and kills all living thengs living in coral

gastropod mollusk called triton eats crown of thorns
Echinoidea
sea urchins
-edible
-herbavores-eat kelp
Amphibians have how many lineages? and what are they?
Anerua- Frogs
Caudata- Salamandars
Caecilia-caecilia
Anura
-Frogs
-means no tail
-8 vertabrae
-has two life stages

-adults are carnivorous
-larvae (tadpoles) are herbavores and breath with gills underwater

-external fertilization (oviparous) and they do amplexus

-have a wide array of parental care

-5000 plus species
Amplexus
a form of external fertilization where the male latches onto the female and when the female lays the egg they lay sperm on the eggs
Caudata
-Salamanders
-means tail amphibians
-have 4 equal sized legs
-some are lungless and they get their oxygen through skin
-skin is toxic
-oviparious/viviparous/ovoviviparous

-mostly external fertilization/ some internal
-lacks intromittant organ

-500 species
Caecilia
-burrowers

-live world wide in humid tropics

-some are aquatic in freshwatter

-have internal fertilization
-intromittant organ
-very toxic skin

-wide array of parental care
Amniotic Egg
-allantois-waste bag
-albumin-holds water and keeps hydrated
-chorion-encloses embryo, and creates placenta

-not first time egg can survive on land, insect eggs could before

-appeared in the carboniferous 340 mya
First mamal like reptiles
300 mya
What is Endothermy?
generate and regulate their heat content
-very constant temperature
-evolved more than once in birds and mammals
What's great about Endothermy?
-allows for animals to eprform bodily functions at low temepratures
-necessary to invade cold places
-enzymatic optimization: works best at certain temperatures
Ectothermy
cannot regulate their temperature at constant temp
What's great about Ectothermy
saves energy

variable food supply(doesn't always have to eat)
What do animals with endothermy need?
-high metabolism
-high energy
-high respiration
-large water loss
What are turbinates
-flat bones in nose that drys and moistens to save water
Do birds have turbinates?
No, but they have long necks that serves the same purpose
Are dinosaurs endothermic?
1) don't have turbinates
2) but have long bird like necks
3) large lungs
4)Crocs also have large lungs
5)Dino fossils with four chambered heart
6) crocs also have 4 chambered hearts
7) rapid bone growth in dinosaurs
8)pterosaurs flew up and hard to fly without high metabollic rate
Placenta
structure that allows mothers to exchange nutrients and gases with embryo

-highly vascularized and surrounded by uterus
-allows to make hormones
-has umbilical cord

-evolved more than once
Which mammals don't have placenta?
echinida-spiny anteater
duck billed platypus
What do mammals have?
fur
mammalry glands
usually do a lot of parental care
Oviparity vs. Viviparity
Oviparity:-has lots of eggs
-lots of embryos
-lots of young animals
-small and tiny-->defenseless
-lots die


Viviparity-few young
-large and well able to take care of themselves
Ground up
dinos on ground-> evolve scaly wings->evolve wings with feathers

-1st non flying primitive wings for balance and catch prey more efficently

-verticle territory
-wing assisted incline running data-chick going up incline
trees down
-transition form: small bird like dinos with partial non functioning wings

-evolved features
tuft to barbs to barbules

-feathers were used first for insulation
Hominins
closest ancestors and us

austrolopithecus, paranthropes, homos
Australopithecus
ex:lucy
walked bipedally
-450 cc brain case
Paranthropes
heavy jaw, ate grains
500 cc
Different kinds of Homos
Homo Erectus, Homo Neanderthalis, and Homo Sapiens
Where did Homo Sapiens come from?
out of africa
we wiped out all hominis
What is the Assimilation hypothesis
-start out in Africa
-cross bred with neanderthalis
-neanderthalis was in europe and had cultural rituals

-not many of the same alleles with homo neanderthalensis so we most likely wiped them out