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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What kind of acute infection is Cholera?
This famous composer had Cholera.
1 in ____ will develop profuse watery diarrhea, vomitting, and have leg cramps. Diarrhea associated with Cholera is known as _______ and its stools are colourless with small flex mucous
20; rice water stools
Without treatment, death can occur within:
Cholera is caused by ____ which as many serogroups. Until recently, _______ caused epidemics. There was a change in 1992 when _____ also caused an epidemic.
Vibrio cholerae; El Tor; Bengal
Vibrio cholerae is found in ________ environments and part of the normal flora of brackish water. There tends to be vibrio where there are _______ blooms are linked to temperatures - El Nino.
aquatic; algae
Spread by contaminated ____ and ______, especially in _________ and _______.
food, water, seafood, veggies
Can survive on foodstuffs for up to __ days at _________ temperatures and up to ____ days at ___ to ___ *C.
5; ambient; 10; 5-10 degrees
If there's a sudden large outbreak, it's usu. the __________.
water supply
__________ is also a source of Cholera.
Cholera struck L. America in _______, which had not had it for a _________. It spreaded through ____ countries.
1991; century; 11
It can also survive _______.
____% of cases are mild and indistinguishable. Most persons do not become ill although the bacteria is present in the _____ for __ to ___ days.
90%,feces, 7, 14
short incubation period of
1-5 days
Less than __% of infected develop typical cholera with s. dehydration. The acidity of the ________ plays a large role in barrier to infection. Failure to fight off the bacteria will cause failure to reabsorb and retain fluids and salts in the intestines.
10; stomach
Treatments for cholera include 3 things:
1) ORT
2) IV fluids
3) antibiotics
Antibiotics play a minor role. They only shorten the _______ and _______ of fluids. The 3 types of antibiotics include _____,____, and _____. However, ________ is the antiobiotic of choice.
duration; amount; doxycycline, erythromycin, tetracycline; tetracycline
Case fatalities today would be ___%, but treatment can limit deaths to only ___%
50%, 1%
To prevent cholera, there should be hygenic _______ of feces; adequate supply of safe _____________; and good ________ hygiene.
feces; drinkng water; food
There are _____ oral cholera vaccines, but only provides protection of up to _______ months and only used for ________. Besides resistance, it is not recommended for a large outbreaks because it may give a false sense of security who may neglect the more effective measures.
2; several; travellers
The first cholera pandemic was in ______ in _________. They called in the ________ Cholera. Patient's skin turned ____________. Over the next few years, it spreaded over over trade routes infecting people from China to the Middle East and from Europe to US.
1817, SE Asia, Asiatic Cholera; bluish-grey
In ______, disease struck England and Scotland. They used a mixture of _______ and _______ to induce vomiting. Bleeding from a vein for ___to ___ pints.
1831; mustard and salt
They used morphine and _____, fermented juice of a palm tree for Cholera.
Second pandemic, which occurred in England in 1848-9 killed between _______. In 1854, ________ were killed in London alone. This was due to the a soaring population that reached 2.5M by 1850 but did not have the infrastructure to deal with it. Rivers were viewed as a __________.
50-70,000 people; 30,000; disposal system
They believed that Cholera was due to miasmas and used cigars and herbs, but eventually ______________ doubts the origins because he wasn't getting sick despite facing so many patients. The _____ seemed to be affected first in most patients. suspected water contamination as no brewery members were infected. Neither were prisoners who either didn't drink water or had their own wells.
John Snow; gut
In 1994 in Rowanda, there were ________ cases, of which ________ were deaths. In 1991 in Peru, _________ were infected by cholera.
48,000; 23,000d; 70 million
There is an expected _______ in Cholera due to increase in water temperature and ______ growth.
increase; algae