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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Electromagnetic (EM) radiation
Energy transmitted by wave propagation of electric and magnetic fields
Distance wave travels in one cycle
Number of cycles per unit time
Distance per unit time
Dispersion (separation) of different wavelengths of light by reflection from a grooved surface
Diffraction: constructive interference
waves interact in-phase (amplitude increase)
Diffraction: destructive interference
waves interact out of phase (amplitude reduction)
Diffraction: grooved surface (grating)
results in interference between reflected wavelenths
dispersion of light as it passes through a different medium (material)
Refraction: velocity of light
reduced by interaction with atoms and molecules matter
Refraction: degree of refraction
dependent of frequency of light
band of different wavelenths from dispersed EM radiation
continuous spectrum
contains approximately all wavelengths in a given range
discontinuous specrum
contains small number of discrete wavelength
Atomic line spectrum
discontinuous spectrum produced by excited atoms
atomic emission
gas phase atoms emit light when thermally or electrically excited
line spectra
wavelenghts specific to particular elements
fit oberseved wavelengths (visible) of H-atom line spectrum to mathematical equation
atoms emit/absorb only discrete amounts (quanta) of energy
Photoelectric effect
ejection of electrons when photons strike a metal surface
light intensity
number of photons per unit time (no effect unless above threshold frequency)
Developed model to explain line spectrum of the hydrogen atom
atomic energy levels
fixed orbits of electrons around the nucleus (discrete allowed states)
photon absorbtion
e- moves to higher orbit
photon emission
e- moves to lower orbit
line spectra
discrete wavelengths correspond to electrons changing orbits (photon emission)
Why is the Bohr model limited and inaccurate
only predicts spectra for one-electron systems

electrons do NOT move in fixed orbits
Energy states of an ato (Bohr model)
ground state=lowest energy level

excited state=energy level higher than ground state
numlear charge (atomic #)
energy level (integer for allowed state)
Photon energy
difference in energy between state (consevation of energy)
Quantum mechanics
application of wave properties to matter
Wave-particle duality
light exhibits both wave and particle properties and behavior
de Broglie
matter exhibits both partible and wave properties
Mater waves
waves associated with material particles of nuclear or atomic dimensions
Standing waves
crests and troughs occur at fixes positions (amplitude at fixed endpoints)
points in wave with constant zero amplitude (no displacement during wave oscillation)
mathematical function describing wave motion of a particle
schrodinger equation
extracts physically relevant information from allowed wavefunctions
principal quantum #(n)
describes average radial distance of electron from nucleus
n=positive, non zero integer
Orbital angular momentum quantum # (l)
determines angular distribution fo orbital
energy sublevel(subshell)
subset of principal energy level
sublevel notation
n value followed by sublevel name
Magnetic quantum # (ml)
determines orientation of electron orbital
# values for ml
# electron orbitals within particular sublevel
Orbital energies (one-electron system)
defined by principal quantum number (n)
sublevels=degenerate (same energy) within principal level for one-electron system
Electron charge density
probability density of finding e- at a point
probability density distribution
three dimensional "shape" or orbital
s orbital
greatest electron density at the nucleus; spherical shape
p orbital
no electron density at the nucleus; non-spherical shape
d orbital
no electron density at nucleus; various (non-spherical) shapes
orbital energies
affected by charge interactions within atom
nuclear charge (Z)
positive charge of nucleus (attracts negative electrons)
Electron shielding
one electron shields another electron from the full nuclear charge
effective nuclear charge
nuclear charge actually experienced by electron
Electron penetration
ability of an electron to approach nucleus (depends on l)
radial probability distribution
probability of finding e- at a certain radius from nucleus
orbital energies (multi-electron system)
sublevel energies altered by electron penetration and shielding
one electron system=no electon-electron relulsion--sublevel energies degenerate (same energy)
multi-electron system
sublevel energies separated due to electron penetrarion and shielding
Electron spin
movement of electron on tis ezis generates magnetic field
electron spin quantum number (ms)
indicates direction of electron spin
electron configuration
designation of how electrons are distributed in orbitals
orbital filling order
in terms of increasing orbital energy
pauli exclusion principle
each electron must have a unique set of quantum numbers
Hund's rule
if degenerate orbitals are avaiable electron-electron repulsion is minimized
Aufbau method
distribute electrons to minimize energy
periodic table
indicates filling order in terms of increasing orbital energy
principle quantum # (n)
related to period (row) number
abbreviated notation
noble gas symbol used to represent core electrons
indicate number of electrons in each orbital
lower energy associated with half filled and filled sublevels