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79 Cards in this Set

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psychoactive
drugs that affect feelings, thoughts, perceptions, or behavior
drug abuse:
Drug-taking behavior resulting in some form of physical, mental, or social impairment.
drug dependence
Condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug. In the process, the drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individuals life.
drug misuse
Drug-taking behavior in which a prescription or nonprescription drug is used inappropriately.
licit
Drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is legal.
illicit
Drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is illegal.
placebo effect
Any change in a person’s condition after taking a drug, based solely on that persons beliefs about the drug rather than on any physical effects on the drug.
Risk factors
Young people who take drugs are more inclined to attend school irregularly, have poor relationships with their parents, or get into trouble in general. Perceived prevalence of marijuana use by friends in and out of school and the perceived prevalence of use in the community. Individual attitudes towards marijuana smoking and the attitude of friends is also a risk factor. Inclination toward delinquent behavior. Easy to get.
Protective factors
An intact and positive home environment (Strong parent-child attachment) A positive educational experience (aspirations/expectations to go to college) Conventional peer relationships (social conforming attitudes among peers. Positive attitudes and beliefs.
High School Seniors in 2009
This study monitors the future of High School Seniors in 2009. It shows the percents of drugs such as Marijuana(35%) Cocaine (5%) MDMA (5%) LSD 2%.
U.S. High School Seniors:
- Illicit drug use prevalence rates peaked in 1979 (Baby boomers)
- Steady decline in usage rates until about 1993
- Usage rates rise from 1993 to 2001, slight decline since then
- In 2003, 39% reported illicit drug use in the past year, compared to 54% in 1979
*Caucasian is more likely to binge drink and smoke.
*One disadvantage is that is not focus on high school drop outs.
Therapeutic Index:
The measure of a drug’s relative safety for use, computed by the ratio of the lethal dose for 50% of the population over the effective dose for 50% of the population: LD50/ED50
Example: LD50 for drug X is 15 mg and the ED50 is 5mg, then the Therapeutic Index=3.
toxicity
The physical or psychological harm that a drug might present to the user.
effective dose
Minimal dose of a particular drug necessary to produce the intended drug effect in a given percentage to the population
Lethal dose
The minimal dose of a particular drug capable of producing death in a given percentage of the population.
DAWN
Drug Abuse Warning Network - A federal program in which metropolitan hospitals report the incidence of drug-related lethal and nonlethal emergencies.
ED mention
The substances (mentioned) referred to by the patient during a given ED episode (An instance of a person coming to the emergency department of a hospital seeking treatment for drug related problem.
ME mention
The substances involved in a particular drug related death, as reported by the medical examiner (ME)
acute
The physical or psychological harm a drug might present to the user immediately or soon after the drug is ingested into the body.
chronic
The physical or psychological harm a drug might cause over a long period of use.
behavioral tolerance
The process of drug tolerance that is linked to drug-taking behavior occurring consistently in the same surroundings or under the same circumstances. Also known as conditioned tolerance.
physical tolerance
The capacity of a drug to produce a gradually diminished physical or psychological effect upon repeated administrations of the drug at the same dose level.
physical dependence
A model of drug dependence based on the idea that the drug abuser continues the drug-taking behavior to avoid the consequences of physical withdrawal symptoms.
psychological dependence
A model of drug dependence based on the idea that the drug abuser is motivated by a craving for the pleasurable effects of the drug.
Substance abuse
A diagnostic term used in clinical psychology and psychiatry that identifies an individual who continues to take a psychoactive drug despite the fact that the drug-taking behavior creates specific problems for that individual.
Drugs and Pregnancy?
12% of pregnancy women report smoking cigarettes. 14% report consuming some alcohol (underestimates due to social desirability) Increased risk of miscarriage/spontaneous abortion and malformation of fetus during early phases of pregnancy (4-8 weeks) During use after 8th month- more likely to experience growth retardation, pre-maturity, and neurological damage.
pharmacological
Violent acts committed while under the influence of a particular psychoactive drug, with the implication that the drug caused the violence to occur.
economically compulsive
- Violent acts that are committed by a drug abuser to secure money to buy drugs.
systemic violence
Violence that arises from the traditionally aggressive patterns of behavior within a network of illicit drug trafficking and distribution.
Safety Margin
The ratio of a lethal dose for 1% of the population to the effective dose of 99% of the population

Example: LD1 / ED99
1970 Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 was an attempt to organize the control of drugs under five classifications called 5 schedules of controlled substances.
Schedule I — high potential for abuse, no accepted medical use
heroin, LSD, mescaline, marijuana, PCP

Schedule II — high potential for abuse, some accepted medical use
codeine, morphine, cocaine, methadone, amphetamines, short-acting barbiturates

Schedule III — some potential for abuse, accepted medical use (with potential dependence)
barbiturates, codeine or opium in alcohol mixtures

Schedule IV — low potential for abuse, accepted medical use
antianxiety drugs and sedative-hypnotics

Schedule V — minimal potential for abuse, widespread medical use
prescription cough medicines not containing codeine, laxatives
zero tolerance policy
objective is to totally eliminate illicit drug taking behavior.
harm reduction policy
objective is to minimize the medical, psychological, and social costs associated with drug-taking behavior.
Routes of administering drugs
Oral administration (by mouth)
Injection (intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection)
Inhalation (smoking)
Absorption through the skin or membranes (intranasal sniffing, sublingual absorption, rectal suppository, Transdermal patch)
Weight
- A heavier person will require a greater amount of a drug than a lighter person to receive an equivalent drug effect, all other things being equal.
Gender
Women have, on average, a higher proportion of fat, due to greater fat-to-muscle ratio, and a lower proportion of water than men. The lower water content makes people feel more intoxicated.
Ethnicity
Many Asian people have low levels of one of the enzymes that normally breaks down alcohol in the liver shortly before it is excreted. Caucasians have a faster rate of biotransformation of antipsychotic and antianxiety medications than Asians and end up with a relatively lower concentrations of drugs in the blood.
additive
Two drugs mixed making the equivalent combination effect.
Hyper-additive (synergistic)
The property of a drug interaction in which the combination effect of two drugs exceeds the effect of either drug administered alone.
Potentiation
The property of a synergistic drug interaction in which one drug combined with another drug produces an enhanced effect when one of the drugs alone would have had no effect.
Antagonistic
Acute effect of one drug is diminished to some degree when administered with another.
.
Cross-tolerance
Person develops tolerance to a certain drug (alcohol) causes cross tolerance for a different drug with similar biopsycho effects such as
Cross dependence
One drug can be used to reduce the withdrawal symptoms following the discontinuance of another drug.
Nervous System
N.S is designed to do 2 things: to take information from the environment around us and to control our bodily responses so that we can live effectively in that environment.
Peripheral Nervous System
PNS: composed of nerves and nerve fibers carrying info to CNS and rest of body.
Somatic
movement that is voluntary, consious, and controlled. Reaching for something.
Autonomic
controls blushing and breathing.
Parasympathetic
breathing and heart rate slows, digestion occurs, pupil constricts.
Sympathetic system
fight/flight, ready for action.
Stimulants (cocaine, adderol)
STIMULATE sympathetic system and DEPRESS parasympathetic or both.
Parasympathetic
Relaxes body
Depressants (alcohol)
STIMULATES parasympathic and DEPPRESSES sympathetic system or both.
Medulla
controls breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Alcohol impacts this section (too much can kill you, so your body tells you to get rid of the excess alcohol by vomiting—vomiting saves lives!
Pons
Controls alertness and sleep
Cerebellum
controls balance and coordination
Midbrain:
controls sensory and motor reflexes.
Forebrain
very complex, controls emotions and higher thinking. Psychological dependence on substance is likely located here.So many things can go wrong in the brain to impact not only chronic illness but personality differences, emotional stability and intelligence, etc.
Neuron Cell body
Comprising the bulk of the neuron and containing the nucleus
Dendrites
relatively short appendages that receive information from the outside (the environment or other neurons)
Axon
Relatively long appendage that transmits information outward to muscles or other neurons
Blood Brain Barrier
A system whereby some substances in the bloodstream are excluded from entering the nervous system. Fat solubility is a key factor in the ability of a drug to pass through the blood-brain barrier.
When a neuron is excited-
it emits a greater number of nerve impulses per second.
When a neuron is inhibited-
it emits a lesser number of nerve impulses per second.
Reuptake
The process by which a neurotransmitter returns from the receptor site back to the synaptic knob.
Synapse
The juncture between neurons. It consists of a synaptic knob, the intervening gap, and receptor sites on a receiving neuron.
Acetylcholine




Glutamate-excitatory; associated with drug craving
stimulates parasympathetic branch (alertness and rest); related to our memor7
Norepinephrine
sympathetic autonomic responses and regulates mood
Dopamine
motor control and emotionality
Serotonin
regulates sleep and mood levels
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
inhibits the body;anti-anxiety
Endorphins
body’s natural pain killers
Acute Cocaine Effects
Powerful burst of energy, general sense of well-being, aphrodisiac properties disputed, heart rate and respiration are increased, heart rate and respiration are increased, appetite is diminished, blood vessels constrict and blood pressure is increased, pupils are dilated, cocaine + alcohol = cocaethylene toxity
Chronic Cocaine Effects
Hallucinations (cocaine psychosis), continuously stuffy or runny nose, bleeding of nasal membranes (if cocaine has been snorted), intense cocaine craving.
Acute Amphetamine Effects
Fast breathing, high blood pressure, euphoria and invincibility, alert and energized.
Chronic Amphetamine Effects
Hallucinations, compulsive and repetitive behavior, teeth grinding, tendencies towards violence, amphetamine psychosis
Crack
The hydrochloride is removed from the salt form of cocaine. Cheaper and safer. Much more effective when smoked than snorted because of being inhaled. Women who have children tend to abuse them more often if on crack cocaine. Crack is more addictive, b/c it gets into the system faster and has shorter effects. Crack users are more likely to have disrupted daily lives as a result of habit, b/c it is more time consuming.
Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder:
Impulsive behavior. Prescribed: Ritalin, Adderall, Vyvanse. They improve behavior and learning ability in 60-80% of children diagnosed correctly. About 70% of children taking this stimulant medication for ADHD respond sucessfully.
Cocaine History
1200s–1532: Coca chewing practiced by Incans in Peruvian and Bolivian Andes
1859: Alfred Niemann isolates cocaine as the active ingredient in coca leaves
1863: Angelo Mariani markets a mixture of coca and wine called Vin Mariani
1884: Sigmund Freud praises cocaine use
1903: Coca-Cola Company removes cocaine from its formulation of Coca-Cola
1914: Harrison Act prohibits cocaine, along with heroin
1980s: Crack cocaine abuse is rampant in America
Acute Effects of Heroin
Lowered body temp, decreased blood, skin flushed, constipation, decreased sex drive, muscular relaxation, nodding, stupor, analgesic, euphoria
Chronic Effects of Heroin
Elevated body temperature, increased blood pressure, goose flesh, runny nose, diarrhea, yawning, panting, sneezing, spontaneous ejaculations and orgasms, restlessness, insomnia, pain, depression and anxiety.