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28 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 species of Chlamydiae?
C trachomatis, C psittaci, C pneumoniae, and C pecorum
What is an elementary body?
The infectious form of chlamydiae
What is a reticulate body?
The reproductive form of chlamydiae
Why does azithromycin treat genital C trachomatis?
half life in tissue of 5-7 days
What is the prevalence of C trachoma in sexually active adolescent and young adult women attending outpatient clinics?
>5%
What % of infants born vaginally to infected women will develop C Trachoma infection?
50-75%
What percent of infants born to chlamydia positive mothers develop conjunctivitis?
30-50%
incubation period of chlamydial conjunctivitis?
5-14 days after delivery or earlier if membranes have ruptured prematurely
presentation of chlamydial conjunctival infection?
from mild conjunctivitis to severe conjunctivitis with copious purulent discharge, chemosis, and pseudomembrane formation
C trachomatis pneumonia usually presents between....
4-12 weeks of age
presentation of C trachoma pneumonia
cough with congestion and an absence of fever; tachypnea & rales
x-ray findings with chlamydia
hyperinflation. not lobar consolidation nor pleural effusions.
lab findings in chlamydia pneumonia
eosinophilia and elevated serum immunoglobulin concentrations
How long can perinatal vaginal or rectal chlamydia trachoma infection last?
up to 3 years
rate of CT infection in sexually active teen girls?
15-20%
What does C T cause in men?
urethritis
Why are adolescents more susceptible to CT?
ectopy of cervical cells (transitional epithelium more susceptible than cornified epithelium)
What percentage of CT infections are asymptomatic?
about 70%
Tests for CT
culture (gold standard), EIAs, DFAs, DNA probe, NAATs (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests)
non-culture tests for CT: sensitivity and specificity for conjunctival CT?
sensitivity 90%; specificity 95%
non culture tests for CT: sensitivity and specificity for nasopharyngeal specimens?
sensitivity 33%; specificity 90%
for what is DNA probe approved by the FDA?
cervical and urethral sites in adults
which tests have higher sensitivity for CT than culture?
NAATs (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests): PCR, SDA [strand displacement amplification] and TMA [transcription-mediated amplification]
is ocular prophylaxis with erythromycin effective in preventing chlamydial ophthalmia?
no
therapy of choice for Clamydial conjunctivitis
oral erythromycin for 10-14 d; efficacy 80-90%; one study showed azithromycin effective
if erythromycin treatment for chlamydial conjunctivitis or pneumonia fails, then what?
treat again for 2-3 weeks
treatment of chlamydial infection in school age child
oral erythromycin if under 8 and tetracycline if over 8 but under 45 kg
who can take single 1g dose of azithromycin for chlamydia?
>45 kgs and over 8 years