Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three major factors to address in intrinsic injuries
(1) biomechanical deficits of the lower extremity that the pt. is born with
(2) pts. environment
(3) pts. current training program errors
What drives most pts. to seek the services of a health care practitioner
effects of the deficit on the soft tissue not biomechanical deficits
Biomechanical problems show as what type of problems
soft tissue problems
Soft tissue follows what principle
SAID principle
What is the SAID principle
specific adaptation to imposed demand (inactivity significantly weakens soft tissue biological properties, exercise improves them)
How does a ligament stabilize a joint
passively stabilizes a joint
What are the three types of ligament injuries
What type of ligaments do not heal when ruptured
intra-articular ligaments
What type of ligaments have excellent healing potential
capsular ligaments
How do ligaments act in the elastic zone
At what change in length do collagen fibers begin to fail then rupture
change in length of 4%
What is the strength of the ligament dependent on
cross sectional area
(greater the CSA, the stronger and stiffer the ligament is)
How do ligaments adapt to training
increasing the CSA
What reduces the ligaments strength
How does ligament injury usually occur
acute trauma not overuse injuries (except in shoulder)
What are the grades of ligament injury
grade 1
grade 2
grade 3
What does a grade 1 ligament injury consist of
mild injury
structural damage at the microscopic level
mild local tenderness
What does a grade 2 ligament injury consist of
moderate injury
partial tear
visible edema
increased tenderness
tends not to affect joint stability
What does a grade 3 ligament injury consist of
severe injury
complete rupture of ligament
significant edema
joint instability
What type of deformation does tendon injury follow
follows simple stress deformation curve (4%)
What type of injuries are tendons susceptible to
overuse injuries
How do tendons respond to training
increase in CSA which increase strength in tendon
term used in most overuse injuries
noninflammatory intratendinous degeneration due to atrophy from repetitive microtrauma, aging, vascular compromise
degeneration of the tendon
vascular disruption
inflammatory response
tendon strain or tear
What are the two main types of muscle injuries
strains (muscle pulls)
contusions (direct trauma)
A muscle injury may lead to what in the muscle
alteration of the muscle/fascial interface (adhesions)
abnormal muscle sliding
The first 4-6 wks of muscle adaptation training is what
neural adaptation
Describe bone to bone end feel
hard end feel
due to bony block
limiting factor may be ligamentous
Describe soft tissue end feel
normal feel of tissue approximation
abnormal if feel becomes less soft due to arthrosis, scar tissue or contracture
Describe a spasm or twang end feel
always abnormal
results from passive movements
Describe capsular end feel
firm end feel (shoulder/hip)
feels like leather being stretched
abnormal is associated with decreased ROM or it feels firmer
indicative of capsular fibrosis
Describe springy block end feel
hard rebound with a relativly soft feeling
indicates intra-articular pathology
always an abnormal end feel
Describe an empty end feel
more movement is possible but pt demand motion to stop due to pain
Decrease in capsular patterns of the shoulder
external rotation
internal rotation
Decrease in capsular patterns of the hip
internal rotation
Decrease in capsular patterns of the knee
more limited in flexion then extension
Decrease in capsular patterns with the sign of buttock
passive hip flexion more limited and painful then SLR
Describe Isometric contractions
muscle contracts without movement about a joint axis
Describe Isotonic contractions
muscle contracts and causes motion about a joint axis
Describe Eccentric contractions
muscle contracts while the muscle is lengthening
Describe Reciprocal inhibition contraction
agonist contraction neurologically inhibits the antagonist
gels become more solid with energy loss
more fluid with energy input
What is the inflammatory phase in connective tissue repair
occurs at the time of injury
prepares the would environment for healing
What is the proliferative phase in connective tissue repair
24-48 hrs after injury
fibroblasts synthesize and secrete collagen along with growth factors that induce angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation
Describe the inflammatory phase in connective tissue repair
3 wks - 6 mo after injury
remodeling of scar tissue via collagen synthesis
lysis via collagenase enzymes
form a scar that increases tensile strength of the wound
How should local muscle dysfunction be treated
treated as a generalized disorder
Postural muscles tend to show what
increased tone
Phasic muscles tend to show what
list the postural muscles
sub-occipitals scalene
SCM levator
pecs biceps
TL erectors
QL hip adductors
psoas rectus femoris
TFL Hamstrings
Piriformis Gastroc
list the phasic muslces
deep neck flexors
middle/lower trap
serratus ant. gluts
abdominals rhomboids
triceps deltoid
vasti tib ant.
How do hypertonic muscles react
hyperactive during movement
easily excited
How do inhibited muscles react
may be left out of a movement
not easily excited
What are the short/hypertonic muscles in lower crossed syndrome
erector spinae
tensor fascia latae
rectus femoris
quadratus lumborum
hip adductors
What are the weak/inhibited muscles in lower crossed syndrome
hypermobile lumbosacral jxn.
What are the findings in upper cross syndrome
round shoulders
forward head
elevation of shoulders
winging of scap
What are the short/hypertonic muscles in upper cross syndrome
upper trap
levator scapula
What are the weak/inhibited muscles in lower cross syndrome
mid/lower trap
serratus ant
longus colli/capitus
deep neck flexors
What are the layers in layer syndrome
tight (cervical extensors, upper trap, levator)
weak (lower scap, rhomboid)
tight (TL, extensors)
weak (lower lumbar erectors, glut)
tight (hamstrings)
What is the hip extension pattern
10-15 degrees needed for gait
pt. prone lift foot off table
lumbar spine should remain neutral
extension of spine indicates weak glut
What is trunk flexion pattern
tight psoas
weak rectus abdominals/psoas
pt. supine and curls up
hip or knee flexion indicates weakness
What is hip abduction pattern
weak glut will over activate TFL resulting in post. pelvic rotation
side lying abduction
Describe neck flexion pattern
pt. supine and bring chin to chest
if deep neck flexors weak, SCM and sub occipitals predominate resulting in chin poking
Describe should abduction pattern
pt. flexes elbow to 90 degrees then abducts arm
first 15-30 is GH joint then ST joint
if ST joint begins on onset the tight RC, levator and upper trap
weak serratus
Describe scapular stabilization pattern
assesed during push up
look for excessive movement during down phase
superior shift of scapula indicates tight levator and upper trap and weak lower trap
lateral shift indicates tight pec and weak rhomboid
winging indicates weak serratus
Describe respiration pattern
normal respiration - abdomen towards the pelvis and chest expands (scalenes minimal)
paradoxical respiration - over activation of the scalenes with expansion of the upper chest
What are the functional correlates with lower crossed syndrome
faulty hip extension/abduction
faulty trunk flexion
facet syndrome
LB problems
SI dysfunction
plantar fascitis
What are the functional correlates with upper crossed syndrome
faulty neck flexion
faulty arm abduction
faulty breathing
CT jxn problems
shoulder impingement syndrome
intercostal problems
thoracic outlet syndrome