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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 types of music
popular, folk, and art/classical
extramusical qualities
not having to do w/ pitch, time, ect. Pleasing attributes
anhemitonic pentatonic
five note scale w/ no half notes, 5 "black" notes on piano
linearity
emphasis on melodic tension and release supported by or held in further tension by rhythmic devices, all melodic instruments play the same melody, no fill-ins w/ chords
transparency
individual instruments are clearly heard, only one instrument per part
word orientation
music has text or title that evokes relation to nature. Close link to poetry.
Tonality
Same pronounciation w/ different tone holds different meaning
Timbre
the characteristic quality of sound produced by a particular instrument or voice; tone color.
pitch
the degree of height or depth of a tone or of sound, depending upon the relative rapidity of the vibrations by which it is produced.
Tone
a musical sound of definite pitch, consisting of several relatively simple constituents called partial tones, the lowest of which is called the fundamental tone and the others harmonics or overtones.
Ya Yue
Tradition of music in rites and ceremonies
"Eight Sounds" Classification
metal (copper or bronze), stone, earthenware(clay), leather, string(silk), wood, gourds, and bamboo
Chromatic scale
a 12-note scale including all the semitones of the octave, similar to 12 steps in octave on piano w/ white and black keys
ZhuZhu (Bamboo Branches Poem) A sichuan Folk Song
Played on the actual bells and replicas of the chime stones found in the tomb of Marquise Yi, not contemporary piece w/ the bells, just to show their sound
Two offices regulating music during the Qin dynasty
Music Conservatory and the Fengchang
Shaofu
office charged w/ finding things for the emperor's amusement, head of Conservatory for music of the time
Conservatory of Music
searched out local songs and dances for the emperor's amusement, abolished in 7 BC.
Fengchang
In charge of ritual music
Xianghe ge
Originally unaccompanied song w/ one person starting then being joined later by others
We ge
Developed from Xianghe ge, instruments did accompany and they alternated back and forth like the voices had done in Xianghe ge
Jie
contrasting section or two in an song w/ otherwise same tune throughout
yan
introduction
qu or luan
concluding part
Daqu
"big tunes," expanded we ge songs w/ yan or qu/luan
Wusheng
"Wu ballads," western chinese, no ties to older/ritual music, short, usually four lines long, all parts song usually w/ chorus or multiple voices
tremolo
rapid iterations of a single note
jiao
extinct bugle from northwest china, could be played on horseback, cavalry bands as signaling devices
Zither
original guitar like instrument
Se or Zheng
more modern name/form of the zither, guitar like
pipa
lute-like instrument
bili
small double reed wind instrument
"standing music"
performed w/o strings and in a courtyard
"sitting music"
full orchestra and often performed in a palace
sanxu
first part of the Daqu, means "random sequence," free, accented beats play only by instruments, solo or together
zhongxu
middle sequence of Daqu, utilized fixed rhythm w/ clappers, slow accented beats w/ singing and often dancing
po
last part of Daqu, "break up," centerpiece, wubian, was dancing accompanied by singing, rhythm became faster and faster until reaching the climax.
Wubian
"dance piece," middle piece of the po section of Daqu, dancing accompanied w/ singing
quzi
folk songs that reflect the intermingling of diverse ethnicities duing the Han, Sui, and Tang
"foreign lute"
became the erhu, 2 stringed fiddle of sorts, or bowed lute
Zaju plays
poetic dramas set to music
"scholar's music"
genre written almost entirely for zither (qin)
K'un ch'u opera
took complete pieces lyrics and music alike and placed together, usually w/ borrowed pieces, to form an opera
sheng
mouth organ
kuan
single reed wind instrument
sanxian
three stringed plucked lute w/ snakeskin soundboard
i-yang ch'iang
popular w/ public, featured soloists and chorus, passages in colloquial speech mixed w/ classical poetry
Pang-tzu/clapper operas
both string and clapper emphasis
ruan
round, moon-shaped wooden plucked lute
Peking Opera
founded in the 1790s, most of the texts have couplets of 7 or 10 syllables, Unusual: injection or comments or dialogue inbewteen the two lines of verse
erhu
2 strings right next to each other vertically, bow placed inbetween them instead of over
ku
barrel drums w/ tacked heads
suona
double reed instrument w/ conical barrel and a bell
pan-ku
drum w/ only a small hollow spot in the middle that produces a very dry, sharp sound
luan-chueh
scattering hammer, long gong play alone in the rhythm that ould signal confusion
cadential point
musical point of resolution
erh-huang
serious and lyrical melody of Peking opera, faster and rhythm denser
hsi-p'i
melody that apears in brighter part of Peking opera, more disjunct
shuo-shu
storytelling
qin
7 stringer zither
se
25 stringed zither
huang chung
"the yellow bell," fundamental pitch of Chinese tonal system, all others were produced by cutting bamboo tubes 2/3 and 3/4 alternatively of the previous one
pien tones
changing tones, the notes F# and B, modal changes, passing or alternate tones
first 5 tones
form fundamental framework of anhemitonic pentatonic (Chinese tonal system)
superior tones
even numbered tones, masculine (yin) tones
inferior tones
odd numbered tones, femine (yang) tones
kung
central note of the 5 basic tones
Chinese frequency intevals
gong, shang, jue, zhi, yu
pa yin
"eight sounds," method of deciphering sounds of instruments
seasons of instruments
spring= bamboo flutes, summer= string (silk), Autum= bronze bells, winter =drums
String Instruments?
Called silk b/c that's what the strings were made of
types of Silk instruments
plucked, bowed, and struck
plucked instruments
Lute family (pipa, liuqin, sanxian, ruan, and yueqin)
zither family (quqin or qin, zheng or guzheng)
Harp Family (konghou)
Lute family
pipa, liuqin, sanxian, ruan, and yueqin
zither family
quqin or qin, zheng or guzheng
Harp Family
only one listed is the konghou
Bowed instruments
Huquin family of strings (erhu, dahu, jing-hu, ban-hu, gehu, sihu, and morin khur/ma-tou qin)
Struck instruments
yangqin/chinese dulcimer
Bamboo instruments
Flutes, oboes, free reed pipes
flutes
dizi, qin xiao
oboes
guanzi or bili, souna
free reed pipes
pai xiao
Wood
Muyu, ban, yu,
muyu
chinene temple block
ban
chinese wooden clapper
yu
chinese guiro (a scratched gourd)
free reed pipes
pai xiao
Wood
Muyu, ban, yu,
muyu
chinene temple block
ban
chinese wooden opera clapper
yu
chinese guiro (a scratched gourd)
Stone instruments
stone chimes and stone panpupes
metal instruments
pengling (bells), gongs, yunluo, bo, bianzhongtung-ku
pengling
bells
yunluo
set of small bronze gongs
bianzhong
collected bronze bells
tung-ku
bronze drum
Earth (clay or pottery) instrumemts
straight flutes, xun (globular flutes or ocarinas), panpipes
xun
globular flutes or ocainas
Gourd instruments
Sheng
Skin (hide) instruments
geng gu drums, bian gu drum, tanggu drum, lion drum
singing masters
hired to sing to workers to form a rhythm in their work and to work more efficiently
chuigushou
an type of Chinese instumental ensemble, usually the suona, sheng bamboo flute, and various percussion
nanguan
type of ballad sung by a woman and accompanied by a flute and one of the lute family
erxian
variation of the erhu
sizhu
type of ensemble using flutes, and bowed or plucked strings in areas south og the Yangtze River
Jiangnan Sizhu
(literally silk and bamboo music from Jiangnan), originally played in teahouses in Shanghaibut has spread
guongdong music
reflects influence of Cantonese Opera and influences by hazz and western classical music
dutar
two stringed lute unique to Sinkiang Uyghur Autonomous Region used in "Talimu River"
shidaiqu
popular style of mandarin songs
xibeifeng
"northwest wind," foundation of Chinese rock
xungen
"root seeking," cultural movement in 1980s