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70 Cards in this Set

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songtext
song genre of late Song popularized by Ouyang Xiu in 1000s; a lower class pursuit that became socially acceptable
Su Shi
(1000s) most outstanding writer of Song discovered by Ouyang Xiu, was famous in his own lifetime; opponent of New Policies (1060s-70s), thrown out of court, emotionality and everyday thoughts and feelings; serene and accepting tone in contrast with Tang obsequiousness
Fan Kuan
artist in early 1000s; landscape painter who captured true essense (li) rather than literal representation
Guo Xi
court painter in Song (1000s), product of imperial patronage, nature paintings meant to invoke specific moods for people at court who longed for nature
Emperor Song Huizong
ruled in early 1100s, made the Song court an artistic mecca, technically perfect but lifeless artist
Mi Fu
famous Song calligrapher (1000s) who used classical style, wrote in a true expression of himself
inner and outer quarters
physical separation of the sexes during the Song dynasty (1100s) as influenced by Confucian tradition and men like Sima Guang, patriarchal, house as cultural template
footbinding
pushed by Zhu Xi, epitome of sensuality and dependence of women; started with lower class, but adopted by elites in 12th c., spread with expansion of female market
cult of chastity
measures such as footbinding and physical separation of the sexes during the Song (1100s), patriarchal society, encouraged by men like Zhu Xi
women's property rights
Anomalous to patriarchal system, women actually enjoyed expanded property rights under the Song; in fitting with general lack of gov interference in economy, women could inherit money and controlled their own dowries, gave measure of power especially within the home and family unit (1100s on)
Genghis Khan
Mongol leader who united the tribes and created an empire that spanned Eurasia, globalizer, opportunist, spreader of goods and ideas; conquests in the early 1200s
Khubilai Khan (Emperor Yuan Shizu)
descendent of Genghis who inherits China and starts the Yuan Empire in 1279; conquered all under heaven, but had an ineffective administration that allowed cultural growth without penetrative governance
Yuan ethnic categories
Mongols
Foreign collaborators
Former Jin Subjects
Former Song Subjects
"enforced" by Yuan legal code, hereditary, hierarchical (1200s)
black death
plague spanning Eurasia in 1300s; caused economic and social decay through widespread deaths and famine
Ming Taizu (Hongwu Emperor)
established Ming Dynasty, ruled in late 1300s, paranoid and brutal ruler who crushed perceived dissidence, rose from lower class thru military, created legacy of despotism
revival of civil service exams
1315, under Mongols, but not nearly as meritocratic as before, contributing to poor quality of rule, mandated Zhu Xi's interpretation of the 4 classics
Confucian orthodoxy
arose in 12th century under Mongols, first time that it was distinct and doctrinal
Wu Cheng
Southern philosopher who continued True Way Learning in early Yuan, wanted to infuse idealism to Zhu Xi's commentaries
aria
a new genre of poetry popularized in the Yuan that stemmed from the lower classes, emotive and direct, used in variety plays (1300s)
Zhao Mengfu
great painter during Yuan who painted innate quality of objects, negative space, emotional experience, beginning of emphasis on individual expression (1200s)
Guan Hanqing
great writer of arias during Yuan, countercultural hero, created first mass purchases in Chinese history
variety plays
strings of arias during Yuan, street performances of opera, popular culture, not meant for intent focus
Zhu Di (Yongle Emperor)
ruled in early 1400s, created Forbidden City in Beijing, carried on Hongwu's rule by terror in a way unimaginable during Song, gained power by dubious means
"Case of the Pre-Stamped Documents"
1376, Hongwu punished officials for a technical shortcut rather than established procedure in tax collection, officials and connections purged, bloody and paranoid
Grand Secretaries/Councillors
office abolished by Hongwu in late 1300s, made emperor head of state and government, wildly impractical, impossible to fix because of imperial infallibility
Ancestral injunctions
Hongwu's mandate that only sons of his main consort could become emperor
Lijia system
broke households into tens and hundreds during 1370s for tax collection and labor services; helped est. stability but to be effective needed everyone to stay put
court eunuchs
gained prominence in early Ming, secret police, loyalty only to emperor, shadow government and extralegal influence, resented by outsiders
Yongle's Mongolian campaigns
1409-24, court unable to control Mongols, war proved costly and ineffective since the Mongols could simply disperse into steppe, led to construction of Great Wall
Zheng He
7 great voyages, 1405-1433, muslim eunich and diplomat, return to Tang diplomacy and vassal state, preserve sea lanes, install friendly regimes
tribute trade and diplomacy
during Zheng He's voyages, a way to preserve peace and trade while establishing Chinese hegemony, civilizing power
population explosion
trick question, growth actually slow and steady during Ming
New World food crops
allowed expansion into previously not arable land, increased food supply in Ming
autonomous cities
ideal under the lijia system, not realized since increasing trade movement and interconnection (1300s on)
merchant/gentry fusion
upward mobility of commercial class in mid-Ming, fusion with gentry thru intermarriage; introduction of merchant values within the existing social structure
gentry elite
continuation of S. Song into Ming, local importance of gentry through voluntary orgs, merito&aristocratic, fed by infusion of wealth from merchant class
local voluntary organizations
continued from S Song into Ming as important way of loose gov to be propped up, local rulers
lineage organizations
pooling of resources during Ming by relatives, helped stop division through inheritances, worked as a corporation since used money from land to pay for education and maintain elite status
medieval Eurasian world system
overland and Indian Ocean trade routes, deurbanization and famine following plague in 14th c., although China regrows fastest
Suzhou silk and Jingdezhen porcelain
global status symbols during Ming 15-17 c, produced by protoindustrial system
laissez-faire political economy
during Ming, encouraged commercial development and the growth of free trade
Single-Whip Tax Reform
1580s, all taxes required in silver, furthered commercialization and monetization, fed demand for silver
silver influx
trade with Spanish for New World silver in 1500s, facilitated spread of commerce and the cash economy, largest industry in world
commercialization without capitalism
economy too efficient under Ming, household unit of production, each step of production sold on free market, labor too cheap to require pooled resources to develop technology
Wang Yangming
important neoConfucian scholar of mid-Ming (early 1500s); advocated a return to Idealism rather than Zhu Xi's realism, ideas dangerous in that they emphasized individuality, independent thought, and subjectivity
Idealism vs. rationalism
central question of how knowledge and truth are known; Wang Yangming advocated shift from Zhu Xi's true way learning (exams- 1314) to a more intuitive knowledge (in vein of Lu Jiuyan) in early 1500s
innate knowledge
challenge to True Way orthodoxy in early 1500s advocated by Wang Yangming; departure from Tang doctrinal rigidity and emphasis on intuition; must be applied in action, danger of subjectivity
Wang Gen
disciple of Wang Yangming, founds Taizhou School in 1500s, spreads populist message (all people have same innate knowledge), socially dangerous
Grand Sacrifices
state-run religious practices, emphasize centrality of ruler and divine nature of government, realm in sync with world and spirits
official pantheon
collection of official deities; examples of syncretism, also allowed gov. role in religion, reinforce political structure in spiritual world through hierarchical ranking
gentry patronage (monastery building)
allowed monasteries to dot landscape in 1600s, example of local power of elites, extension of voluntary programs
doctrinal ecumenism
no strict doctrinal division between "religions" during Ming
"Three Teachings"
Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism; blended together and integral to Chinese culture and everyday life in the Ming
morality books, ledgers of merit
Early Ming: for individual to keep track of good and bad deeds, blend of 3 Teachings, self-improvement, focus on morality in current life rather than justice in afterlife; pragmatic, demythologized, commercial- drawn from urban merchant culture
Wanli Emperor
really terrible emperor in 1500-1600s; uninterested, incompetent, greedy (high taxes), factional gov
Zhang Juzheng
Wanli Emp's Grand Sec'y (late 1500s); utilitarian, truly ran gov, implemented reforms (inclu. Single Whip), but died too soon
Donglin Academy
local academy and faction est. 1604, Zhu Xi-ists, opposed to Yangming, attempted to leverage gov, stack with members, recharged morality, ex. of dedication to gov that held the Ming together for so long
Chongzhen Emperor
mid-1600s, earnest but ineffectual, wavering, tried to stamp out corruption but no vision of his own
Li Zicheng
leader of rebel conclave in 1600s, attacks and sacks Beijing
Nurhaci
founds "Second Jin" in 1600s, created word "Manchu" to unite tribes (constructed identity), invents banner system, uses propaganda and more rigidly disciplines troops
banner system
1600s- Manchu color groups for identification in battle dev. by Nurhaci, population tracking, organization in military and peacetime; eventually Chinese gain own banners
Shanhaiguan
pass through Great Wall leading to Beijing, guarded by Wu Sangui, breached in 1600s
Wu Sangui
mil leader who guarded Shanhaiguan, in 1600s chose Manchus over rebels and helped retake Beijing
Yangzhou Massacre
1645, to crush "S. Ming" rebel group, Ming consolidating control, using Chinese to fight Chinese
Great Enterprise
retaking China by Manchus in 1600s, reconstructing imperial order
Han Yu
"Genealogy of the Way (800s)," claimed to the the true heir to Confucian thinking, which is the same as Chinese thinking
Ouyang Xiu
(1000s) unifying figure, obsessed with antiquity, belief in fixing things through institutions, inspired by Han Yu, decadent personal life, rise through exam system, Ancient Prose Movement
Sima Guang
anti-reformist, opposed to state intervention, believed need was to restore values to the bureaucracy (1000s)
Wang Anshi
reformist, believed new institutions could fix problems, intrusive role of gov, New Policies (1000s)
Zhu Xi
(1100s) rationalist, intellectual leader, developed True Way Learning, new policies- Community Granary, Community Compact, Local Academies (like Wang Anshi but all local, voluntary), institutions could improve society but on local level, concerned with self-cultivation and morality, allowed local elites to gain prominence, saw self as dissident, against centralization, Four Books in exams (1315)