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143 Cards in this Set

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infantile paralysis
polio
erythema infectiosum
academy rash
fifth disease
causative agent of whooping cough
bordetella pertussis
infants at greatest risk
whooping cough/pertussis
[Childhood Inf 14]
predominately associated with middle-age
herpes zoster
10% of fetal infections result in death in utero
Fifth disease
exotoxin inhibits protein synthesis and attaches to host cell membrane receptors
diphtheria
has an endotoxin and several exotoxins
whooping cough/pertussis
disease worsens for 3 days, plateaus for 7 and recovery may take 2 weeks
tetanus
AKA Rubeola, hard measles, red measles, morbilli
measles
most contagious of human diseases, spreads by respiratory droplets
measles
maculopapular skin rash, typically begins on face then spreads. fades in 3-5 days
measles
Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells
lymphoid hyperplasia
measles
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE)
half of cases occur in those who had this disease under 2 years old
measles
fatal condition that develops years after apparent recovery, by a nonproductive infection of the CNS
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) -->measles
why are measles near eradication in the US?
1. humans are only resevoir
2. life-long immunity in most people after recovery
3. single antigenic type
causes parotitis
mumps AKA infectious parotitis
can mumps involve the CNS?
yes- half of infections involve CNS
can involve the pancreas or gonads (orchitis) in post-pubescent children or adults
mumps
what kind of vaccine is used for mumps
live attenuated, incorporated into MMR shot, gives life-long immunity
is Congenital Rubella Syndrome contracted transplacentally or not (vertical or horizontal)?
transplacental - vertically contracted
does Congenital Rubella Syndrome involve the CNS? if acquired during a pregnancy, when is it more problematic?
yes- involves CNS
1st trimester more problematic b/c CNS is first developing then
where in the spinal cord and brain does paralytic poliomyelitis affect?
anterior horn cells of spinal cord and motor cortex of the brain
resulting in flaccid paralysis
can polio show up again years after an apparent recovery?
yes- 25-35 years later. Post-polio syndrome. Weakness, pain, atrophy. not from a dormant virus, it's due to worn out neurons b/c they've compensated for ones that were lost
which polio vaccine is live and given orally?
Salk's Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (TOPV)
what vaccine is used for polio in the US until eradication is complete
Salk's Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)
how long is the incubation time of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)?
average 14 days (10-21 days)
how do people with chicken pox acquire secondary bacterial infections?
scratching lesions
how many people are hospitalized due to chicken pox? how many die and from what?
10,000 hospitalized
100 die usually from secondary infections
reactivated virus causes shingles
herpes zoster [varicella zoster]
where is the most common appearence of shingles?
thoracic area- unilateral rash
AKA erythema infectiosum, academy rash
Fifth Disease
Human Parvovirus B19
Fifth Disease
mild slapped cheek rash, arthropathy in adults
Fifth Disease
most common joints involved in 10% of kids with Fifth Disease
knees and wrists (Boss was saying this could be mistaken as juvenile arthritis)
is there a vaccine available for Fifth Disease?
No
what disease manifests as bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children under 1 years old, a cold-like illness in children and adults, and severe flu-like illness and pnuemonia in the elderly
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
what virus kills respiratory epithelium, fuses infected cells and may result in multinucleated syncitial cells?
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
is mortality due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) high or low?
low
who does Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) most commonly infect?
children under school age
most severe in babies <6 months
which disease exacerbates childhood asthma and adult chronic bronchitis?
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
[adult chronic bronchitis -->also parainfluenza]
disease that causes laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) or pneumonia in kids <3 years old
parainfluenza
which type most commonly causes parainfluenza?
type 3
what should you be able to distinguish croup from?
acute bacterial epiglottitis which is more serious than croup
exacerbates chronic bronchitis or other pulmonary conditions such as emphysema, and adult onset asthma
parainfluenza [also Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)]
most common cause of infantile diarrhea
rotavirus
what disease is "considered universally inevitable"? and is an important nosocomial illness in newborns
rotavirus
what might you see in a person that has rotavirus?
vomiting, watery diarrhea for several days, low grade fever
viral infection limited to mature enterocytes
rotavirus
disease with a strain specific immunity of limited duration - IgA from mother's milk is most important
rotavirus
is diphtheria gram positive or negative
positive
phage-mediated exotoxin: inhibits protein synthesis and attaches to host cell membrane receptor
diphtheria
grayish pseudomembrane in throat (cast of respiratory tree)
diphtheria
recovery converts person to immune carrier status
diphtheria
what is the treatment for diphtheria
antibiotics and antitoxin
what disease is associated with risus sardonicus
tetanus
is tetanus neonatorum transplacental or horizontal direct transmission
horizontal, direct transmission
what does the cytotoxin of bordetella pertussis do?
kills epithelial cells
what does pertussis toxin do?
1. induces high lymphocytosis
2. inhibits adenyl cyclase which blocks phagocytosis
name the three stages associated with whooping cough
1. catarrhal
2. paroxysmal
3. convalescent
who's is most at risk for whooping cough and at what age is does immunization begin?
infants -beginning at 2 months
what is the vaccine for whooping cough?
killed agent containing toxiod - the most important immunogenic factor
is whooping cough highly contagious?
yes, 80% chance of getting it if you're exposed to someone with it
pneumonia, childhood meningitis, otitis media, acute epiglottis (which can kill in 24 hours) is associated with which disease?
hemophilus influenzae
most common cause of bacterial meningitis
hemophilus influenzae
Hib vaccine is given to prevent what
hemophilus influenzae
transient aplastic crisis
fifth disease
RBC interruption leading to megaloblastic anemia
fifth disease
those who lack P blood group antigen are apparently naturally resistant to what virus?
fifth disease
Koplik's spots are associated with what disease? name all of the AKAs
Measles (Rubeola, hard measles, red measles, morbilli)
what are some signs/symptoms associated with measles?
fever, coryza (runny nose), cough, conjunctivitis (w/ photophobia, burning, tearing), oral mucosal rash (Koplik's spots), generalized lymphadenopathy
secondary bacterial pneumonia is most common in which group of people with measles?
protein malnourished children
what evokes violent extensive gliosis and myelin degeneration
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) from measles before age 2
what type of vaccine is given for measles
live attenuated (MMR), required before entry to school
fatalities associated with respiratory paralysis
polio
initial multiplication in tonsils and Peyer's patches (pharynx and small intestine)
polio
most common side effect of vaccine in infants is uncontrollable crying for 24 hours
pertussis/whooping cough
Shick test
moniters herd immunity for diphtheria (give you a small amt of toxin to see if you react)
lympoid hyperplasia prominent in cervical lymph nodes
measles
risk in fetus decreases the further along in pregnancy
Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS)
profound weakness, pain and muscle mass in previously affected limb
post-polio syndrome
virus spreads down nerves along dermatomes
herpes zoster
resemble Chinese characters when smeared and stained
diphtheria
spores usually introduced in a puncture type wound
tetanus
3 day measles
rubella
hard to diagnose
rubella
where does rash from chicken pox first appear and how does it spread
initially on trunk then spreads to extremities and face
crops are associated with what disease? are they painful?
chicken pox, not painful but they are itchy
what is the grayish pseudomembrane of diphtheria made of?
dead epithelial cells, bacteria, fibrin, pus
name the 4 childhood diseases that are paramyxoviruses. are they DNA or RNA?
measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza
RNA
what childhood disease is a togavirus? is it DNA or RNA?
Rubella
ssRNA
most contagious during the first week of infection when pharyngeal excretion occurs
polio
Picornavirus --what disease?
RNA or DNA
Polio
RNA
Human Parvovirus B19
DNA or RNA
Fifth disease
ssDNA
Reovirus
DNA or RNA
Rotavirus
dsRNA
double shelled capsid
name of tetanus's monotypic neurotoxin
tetanospasmin
how many encapsulated type of H. influenzae are there? which one is the "bad" one?
6 types (a-f)
"b" is the bad one
is Fifth Disease enveloped or not?
non-enveloped
who's at risk for transient aplastic crisis
those with chronic hemolytic anemias (sickle cell or Beta thalassemia) and get Fifth Disease
how is Fifth Disease spread
droplets
is Fifth Disease a zoonoses? are humans susceptible to animal parvoviruses
No, not zoonoses
Reye's Syndrome may be associated with what common childhood disease
chicken pox
[Childhood Inf 8]
during viremic phase this virus ascends peripheral sensory nerves to Dorsal Nerve Root Ganglion
varicella-zoster virus (chicken pox)
is chicken pox considered a disseminated disease?
yes, especially in children with CMI deficiency or neonates born to nonimmune mothers
what's the efficacy of chicken pox virus for healthy kids and those with leukemia?
95% effective in healthy kids
50% effective in kids with leukemia
chicken pox vaccine can reduce burden of illness and what else?
reduced post-herpetic neuralgia and reduced incidence of shingles
where does fifth disease spread to after its preliminary growth
to erythroid precursers. when they replicate it produces cytopathic effects
what does fifth disease do to erythroid precursors and what is the effect
precursors don't develop, so RBC production is interrupted. with less RBCs, the patient develops megaloblastic anemia
what might fifth disease only cause to happen in an adult
arthropathy
T/F: antibodies may be found in some adults
true, in 50-80% of them
what are signs/symptoms of Respiratory Syncytial Virus?
wheezing, cough, repiratory distress and fever
what's the vaccine for Respiratory Syncytial Virus?
There isn't one, it's hard to prevent.
why is RSV hard to prevent?
1. mother's don't have antibodys to pass on to their newborns (the highest at risk for the disease)
2. infections can reoccur
3. vaccine they made didn't work (vaccine potentiates disease upon natural re-exposure)
how many types of polio are there? which is most virulent?
how many types of parainfluenza are there and which is most common?
Polio: 3 types, type I most virulent

parainfluenza: 4 types, type 3 most pathogenic
what does the parainfluenza virus do, pathologically?
infects and kills respiratory epithelium.
the swelling from the infection compresses airway obstructing breathing
what are signs/symptoms of parainfluenza?
fever, hoarseness, cough (Croup-barking cough and inspiratory stridor)
most common age group with rotavirus
1-24 months
do you need a lot or a little to contract rotavirus
very little: 10 viral particles (there are 100 billion viral particles in 1 mL of stool)
what has a danger of happening in kids with rotavirus
becoming severly dehydrated or an electrolyte imbalance
where is the rotavirus infection limited to?
mature enterocytes in upper small intestine
what tests do you do to diagnose rotavirus
EM (electron microscope), ELISA or LA (latex aglutination)
rotavirus antibodies: limited duration or long term
what percentage of the population has rotavirus antibodies at age 4?
the antibodies are of limited duration and strain specific (42 strains but 5 account for most infections).
90% of pop. has them at 4 y/o
intusseception is associated with what childhood infection
rotavirus
describe vaccine for rotavirus
live attenuated monovalent and pentavalent. taken orally. may defeat rotavirus
giant cell pneumonia is sometimes produced
measles
recovery confers life long immunity ( 6 dxs)
measles, mumps, rubella, varicella-zoster, polio, diphthreia
found in raw milk:
found in unpasteurized milk:
diphtheria - raw milk
polio - unpasteurized
in post-pubescents, may involve pancreas
mumps
less common and less seasonal than other childhood diseases
mumps
name 8 diseases that involve CNS
measles, mumps, rubella, polio, varicella-zoster, diphtheria, tetanus, H. influenzae
multinucleated giant cells (2 diseases)
measles, RSV
6 viruses that are RNA
measles, rubella, polio, RSV, parainfluenza, rotavirus (maybe mumps)
DNA virus
Fifth Disease- single stranded
4 bacterial childhood diseases
diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, H. influenzae
Name 8 diseases that can cause pneumonia (primary or secondary)
measles, RSV, parainfluenza, H. influenzae, polio, varicella-zoster, tetanus, whooping cough
cause of mortality with measles
secondary bacterial pneumonia or encephalitis
what percent of mumps are subclinical (asymptomatic)
1/3
fatalities with polio are due to...
respiratory paralysis and pneumonia
disadvantage of TOPVaccine over IPV:
attenuated vaccine strain may revert to virulent
systemic effects of Diphtheria owing to absorbtion of exotoxin
fatty degeneration of myocardium, liver, adrenals, kidneys, peripheral nerve demyelination
can be reversible except for cardiac and nervous system damage
what stage is whooping cough deadly and what is it due to?
paroxysmal stage (2nd) due to pneumonia
what happens in the convalescent stage of whooping cough?
recovery. long lasting but not always permanent or absolute immunity
do you have life long immunity to whooping cough after recovery or vaccination
no