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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation.
rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep
irregular stage of sleep in which electrical brain-wave activity is similar to that of the waking state. The eyes dart behind the lids, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven, and slight body movements occur.
non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep
regular stage of sleep in which the body is almost motionless, and heart rate, breathing, and brain-wave activity are slow and regular
Neonatal Behavioral Assesment Sclae (NBAS)
evaluates the baby's reflexes, state changes, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli, and other reactions.
classical conditioning
made possible by newborn reflexes; in this form of learning, a neural stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. Once the baby's nervous system makes the connection between the two stimuli, the new stimulus will produce the behavior by itself (stroking the baby's forehead and sucking)
classical conditioning sequence for breastfeeding and stroking the baby's head
1.unconditioned stimulus = breast milk
2. unconditioned response = sucking
3. neutral stimulus = forehead stroking
4. neutral stimulus + unconditioned response (breast milk + forehead stroking)
5. unconditioned response = forehead sucking
6. conditioned stimulus = forehead stroking
7. conditioned response = sucking
if the CS is presented enough times, without being paired with the UCS, the CR will no longer occur
operant conditioning
infants act (or operate)on the environment and the stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again.
a stimulus that increases the occurence of a response (in operant conditioning)(sweet liquid reinforces sucking)
removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurence of a response
refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation
a new stimulus causes a habituated response to return to a high level
cephalocaudal trend
head-to-tail sequence; motor control of the head comes before control of the arms and trunk, which comes before control of the legs
proximodistal trend
meaning from the center of the body outward- head, trunk, and arm control is advanced over coordination of the hands and fingers
dynamic system theory of motor development
mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment
newborns make well-aimed but poorly-coordinated swipes and swings
ulnar grasp
a clumsy motion in which the fingers close against the palm
pincer grasp
by the end of the first year, infants use the thumb and index finger opposably in a well-coordinated grasp
optical flow
visually detected movements in the surrounding environment
visual acuity
fineness of visual discrimination
visual cliff
designed by Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk, and used in the earliest studies of depth perception; consists of a Plexiglas-covered table with a platform at the center, a "shallow" side with a checkerboard pattern just under the glass, and a "deep" side with a checkerboard several feet below the glass
kinetic depth cues
created by movements of the body or objects in the environment; are the fist to which infants are sensitive
binocular depth cues
arise because our eyes have slightly different views of the visual field; enables depth perception
pictorial depth cues
depth cues that artists use to make a painting look three-dimensional including receding lines, texture changes, and overlapping objects
contrast sensitivity
a general principle that explains early pattern preferences; contrast refers to the difference in the amount of light between adjacent regions in a pattern. If babies are sensitive to the contrast in two or more patterns, they prefer the one with more contrast
size constancy
perception of an object's size as stable, despite changes in the size of its retinal image
shape constancy
perception of an object's shape as stable, despite changes in the shape projected on the retina
intermodal perception
perception that combines information from more than one sensory system
amodal sensory properties
information that is not specific to a single modality but, rather, overlaps towo or more sensory systems. Examples: rate, rhythm, duration,and intensity.
differentiation theory
the view that perceptual development involves the detection of increasingly fine-grained, invariant features in the environment
invariant features
features that remain stable in a constantly changing perceptual world
the action possibilities a situation offers an organism with certain motor capabilities. Discovery of affordances plays a major role in perceptual differentiation