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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
genotype
genetic information that determines our species and influences all our characteristics
phenotype
directly observable characteristics- depend on genotype and environmental factors
chromosomes
rodlike structures which store and transmit genetic information, made up of DNA
gene
a segment of DNA that contains hereditary instruction
mitosis
process of cell duplication, in which each new cell receives an exact copy of the original chromosomes
gametes
sex cells- the sperm and the egg
meiosis
cell division that produces gametes, which halves the number of chromosomes usually present in body cells
zygote
cell that results from fertilization of an egg by a sperm
crossing over
chromosomes next to each other break at one or more points along their length and exchange segments, so that genes from one are replaced by genes from another- shuffling of genes creates new hereditary combinations
autosomes
chromosomes that aren't sex chromosomes (X and Y)
sex chromosomes
X and Y; the twenty-third pair of chromosomes that determine gender
monozygotic twins
identical twins with the same genetic makeup
dizygotic twins
fraternal twins; results from release and fertilization of 2 eggs
allele
each of 2 or more forms of a gene located at the same place on the chromosomes
homozygous
having 2 identical alleles at the same place on a pair of chromosomes
codominance
a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles influence the person's characteristics
X-linked inheritance
a pattern of inheritance in which a recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome. Males are more likely to be affected.
genetic imprinting
a pattern of inheritance in which alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one pair member is activated, regardless of its makeup.
mutation
a sudden but permanent change in a segment of DNA
polygenic inheritance
a pattern of inheritance involving many genes that applies to characteristics that vary continuously among people.
genetic counseling
a communication process designed to help couples asses their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals.
prenatal diagnostic methods
medical procedures that permit detection of problems before birth.
amnion
the inner membrane that forms a protective covering around the prenatal organism and encloses it in amniotic fluid, which helps kep temperature constant and provides a cushion against jolts caused by the mothers movement.
chorion
the outer membrane that forms a protective covering around the prenatal organism. It sends out tiny hair-like villi, from which the placenta begins to emerge.
placenta
the organ that separates the mothers bloodstream from the embryo's bloodstream but permits exchange of nutrients and waste products
umbilical cord
connects the baby to the placenta; first appears as a primitive body stalk, they grows to a length of 1 to 3 feet. Contains one large vein, which delivers blood loaded with nutrients, and two arteries, which remove waste.
embryo
prenatal period that lasts through the 8th week of pregnancy; most rapid prenatal changes take place, as the groundwork is laid for all body structures and organs.
fetus
prenatal period lasting from end of embryonic period to end of pregnancy; longest prenatal period, growth and finishing stage, increases rapidly in size.
vernix
white, cheeselike substance that covers the skin of the fetus to protect it from chapping during the long months spent in the amniotic fluid.
lanugo
white, downy hair that covers the entire body of the fetus and helps the vernix stick to the skin
age of viability
the point at which the baby can first survive, sometime between 22 and 26 weeks (can be born early but still survive).
teratogen
any enviornmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
a set of defects that occurs when pregnant women consume large amounts of alcohol during most of their pregnancy. Includes mental retardation, impaired motor coordination, attention, memory, language, planning, and problem-solving, overactivity, slow physical growth, and facial abnormalities
fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
the condition of children who display some but not allthe defects of fetal alcohol syndrome. Usually their mothers drank alcohol in smaller quantities during pregnancy.
Apgar scale
a rating system used to assess the newborn baby's physical condition immediately after birth on the basis of five characteristics: heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone, and color.
natural birth
a group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth as rewarding an experience as possible.
breech position
the baby is turned in such a way that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first.
Rh factor incompatibility
a condition that can lead to anoxia (inadequate oxygen supply) and is an incompatibility between the mother's and baby's blood types.
preterm infants
those born several weeks or more before their due date.
small-for-date infants
are below their expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy.
natural birth
a group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth as rewarding an experience as possible.
breech position
the baby is turned in such a way that the buttocks or feet would be delivered first.
Rh factor incompatibility
a condition that can lead to anoxia (inadequate oxygen supply) and is an incompatibility between the mother's and baby's blood types.
preterm infants
those born several weeks or more before their due date.
small-for-date infants
are below their expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy.
behavioral genetics
a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in human traits and abilities.
heritability estimates
measure the extent to which individual differences in complex triats in a specific population are due to genetic factors.
concordance rate
refers to the percentage of instances in which both twins show a trait when it is present in one twin.
range of reaction
each person's unique, genetically determined response to the environment.
canalization
the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes (like motor development in infants).
genetic-environmental correlation
our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed
niche-picking
the tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity (well-coordinated, muscular child spends more time at after-school sports)
epigenesis
development results from both heredity and environment interacting together