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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Learning Theory
imitation and reinforcement
Problems with Learning Theory
Parents do not reinforce syntax (rules that sepcify how words are combined to form sentences)

Children create novel sentences
Nativist Perspective
Language Acquisition Devise (LAD)-people must have a neurological base to learn langauge

Language is too complex to just simply learn
Problems with Nativisist Theory
A description, not an explanation
Interactionists Perspective
all cognition is an active progress

compromise between nature and nurture

Biology-slowly maturing brain

Environment-socailly learned
Pre-Linguistic Period
preverbal reactions before 10-13 months
cooing-2 months
babbling-5 to 6 months
babbling with tone-7 months
words as symbols-1 year
first word-1 year
Telegraphic period
Begin combining words
Telegraphic speech: minimal word sentences-1.5 years
Naming explosion-children learn new words faster than before
Fast Mappng-children's ability to connect words tot heri meanings so rapidly that they cannot be considering all possible meanings for the word
Marcia's Phases of Identity
Diffusion-confused or overwhjelmed by the task of achieving an identity and are doing little to achieve one
Foreclosure-have an identity determined by others
Moratorium-searching and researching identities to find the right one
Achievement-chosen an identity
Elkind's Egocentrism Theory
Imaginary Audience Phenomenon-adolescents feel they are actors whose performance is being watched consatntly
Personal Fable- feel their experiences are entirely unique
Illusion of Invulnerabilioty-adolescents feel they are invulnerable to things, whereas their peers are vulnerable
Super's Theory
Cystallization-13 to 14 years-adolescents use their emerging identites as a source of ideas for theri careers
Specification-18 years-obtain training and limit their choices even more by learning more about the specific line of work
Implementation-early 20's-individuals enter the workforce
Dweck's theory of attribution
Mastery Orientation-attribute success to abilities and failures to external or unstable causes
Learned Helplessness Orientation-attribute successes to unstable external causes, and failures to lack of abilities
Dependent on praise a child recieves
Theory Theory
Beliefs and desires
Around 3 years of age, children understadn relationships between desires and actions (i want something so I will get it)
Around 4 years of age, children can coordinate beleifs and desires (I want something but i can't get it because it has changed locations)
Modular Nativism
Biological predisposition
Apsects of Theory of Mind can be changed
Expertise Simulation Theory
Practice makes perfect
Through interactions with others, children realize perople are different and they can simulate other people's actions
Selman's Stages of Role Taking Theory
Egocentrism-inability ot see from other's perspective (3-6 years)
Social Informational-children know people have different perspectives because people recieve different information (6-8 years)
Self Reflective-Children can step into another's shoe and see from their perspective (8-10)
Mutual-Children can see from a third person POV (10-12)
Societal-Adolescents know that a third person's perspective is influenced by braoder personal, social, and cultural contexts (12-adult)
Piaget's Theory
Premoral Stage-don't have systematic response (0-4)
Moral Realism-has systematic response (5-7)
Moral relativism-intention tells whether act is moral or not
Problems with Piaget
Underestimated kids understadning, different domains have different consequences
Kohlberg's Moral Theory
Preconventional-moral reasoning controlled by obedience to authority and reward and punishment
Obedience Orientation-person should do what an adult says because they know best
Instrumental-people are nice only because they expect the favor to be returned
Conventional-moral decisions are based on social norms
Interpersonal-act accroding to other's expectations
Social System morality-belief that social roles, expectations, and laws exist to maintain order
Postconventional-moral decisions based on moral principles
Social contract-cultural groups adhere to social contracts b/c it benefits the group, but if it doesn't benefit individuals it is null and void
Universal Ethics principle-abstract principles make up the personal moral code that may conflict with society's view
Evaluation of Kohlberg
Longitudinal Studies, evidence supports invariant stages, moral reasoning corrleates with moral behavior, age and stage are correlated

incomplete development (not everyone goes thru the stages), cross cultural, Gilligan (gender bias)
Gilligan's ethic of caring theory
Stage 1: Preoccupation with own needs
Stage 2: Caring for others
Stage 3: Caring for self and others
Turiel 's orgins of moral thinking
Moral Domain-it isn't right to harm others no matter what others say
Social Convention-standards and behaviors agreed to by a society
Personal Domain-choices made by oneslef about all apsects of life
Prosocial Situational Influences
More likely to help if child feels responsibility for others, feels they have the comeptence, are in a good mood, and helping has low costs to them
Information Processing Model
First children attend to certain features of the stimulus
Second children try to interpret the featues
Third children evaluate their goals
Fourth children retrieve from memory a behavioral response that is associated with the interpretation and goals of the situation
Fifth, they evaluate their response and determine if its appropriate
Sixth, procedd with behavior
Money and Ehrhardt's Biosocial Theory
Biological differences are root of sex socialization and gender developmental differences
Freud's Psychoanalytic
Gender identity is the result of the phallic stage solution
Oedipus and Elektra
Refute for Frued's theory
Children don't understand anatomy
Stronger gender identity with a compassionate parents
Lack of similarity to either parent
Social learning Theory
Children learn gender identity through reinforcement of appropriate gender beahviors, punishment of inappropriate, and observational learning
Kohlberg's Cognitive Developmental Theory
Gender role development is dependent on cognitive capacity to understand genders
Children actively socialize themselves
Children learn theier own genders and then pursue behavioral instructions
Gender Schema Thoery
Children first decide if an object, activity, or behavior is female or male, and then use this information ot decide whether or not they should learn more about the object, activity, or behavior