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389 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
behavior modification
procedures that combine and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses.
An approach that regards directly observable events - stimuli and responses - as the appropriate focus of study and views the development of behavior as taking place through classical and operant conditioning
child development
a field of study devoted to the understanding of constancy and change from conception through adolescence and emerging adulthood
in ecological systems theory, temporal changes in children's environments, which produce new conditions that affect development. These changes arise from within the child.
clinical interview
A method in which the researcher uses a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view.
clinical/case study method
a method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique individual child by combining interview data, oberservations, test scores, and sometimes psychophysiological measures.
cognitive-development theory
an approach introduced by Piaget that veiws children as actively constructing knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world, and views cognitive development as taking places in stages.
cohort effects
the effects of cultural-historical change on the accuracy of longitudinal and cross sectional findings. Children born at the same time are influenced by particular cultural and historical conditions. results based on one cohort may not apply to children developing and different times
unique combinations of genetic and environmental circumstances that can result in markedly different paths of development
continuous development
a view that regards development as gruadually argumenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with.
correlation coeficient
a number, ranging from +1 ro -1 that describes the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
correlational design
a research design in which the researcher gathers information without altering participants experiences and examines the relationships between variables. Does not permit inferences about cause and effect.
cross-section design
a research study in which groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.
dependent variable
the variable the researcher expects to be affected by the independent variable in the experiment
discontinuous development
a view in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
dynamic system perspective
a view that regards the child's mind, body, and physical and social worlds as a dynamic, integrated system. A change in any part of the system leads the child to reorganize his or her behavior so the various components of the system work together lead the child to reorganize his or her behavior so the various components of the system work together again but in a more complex and effective way
ecological systems theory
bronfenbrenner's approach, which views the child as developing within a complex systems of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment, from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values and programs
a method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique values and social processes of a culture or a distinct social group by living with its members and taking field notes for an extended period of time
an approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and it's evolutionary history
evolutionary developmental psychology
an approach that seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as those competencies change with age
in ecological systems theory, settings that do not contain children but that affect their experiences in immediate settings. Examples include parents workplaces, heath and welfare services in the community, and parent's social networks
experimental design
a research design in which the invesigator randomly assigns participants to two or more treatment conditions. Permits inferences about cause and effect.
independent variable
the variable the researcher expects to cause changes in another variable in an experiment
information processing
an approach that views the human mind as a symbol manipulating system through which information flows and regards cognitive development as a continuous process
longitudinal design
a research design in which participamts are studied repeatedly at different ages.
longitudinal-sequential design
a research design with both longitudinal and cross-sectional components in which groups of participants born in different years are followed over time.
in ecological systems, cultural values, laws, customs, and resources that influence experiences and interactions at inner levels of the environment
in ecological systems theory, connections between childrens immediate settings
microgenetic design
a research design in which researchers present children with a novel task and follow their mastery over a series of closely spaces sessions
a genetically determined naturally unfolding course of growth
in ecological systems theory, the activities and interaction patterns in the childs immediate surroundings
naturalistic obervation
a method in which the researcher goes into the natual environment to observe the behavior of interest
nature-nurture controversy
debate among theorists about whether genetic or environmental factors are more important determinants of development and behavior
noble savage
rousseau's view of the child as natually endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth
normative approach
an approach in which measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuas and age-related averages are computed to resent typical development
psychoanalytic perspective
an approach to personality development in which freud assumes that children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. The way these conficts are resolved determines the persons ability to learn, to get along with others and to cope with anxiety
psychological methods
methods that measure the relationship between physiological processes and behavior. Among the most common are measures of autonomic nervous systemn activity (such as heart rate and respiration) and brain functioning (EEG and fMRI)
psychosexual theory
Freud's theory which emphasizes that how parents manage children's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of life is crucial for healthy personality development
psychosocial theory
erikson's theory which emphasizes that at each freudian stage, individuals not only develop a unique personality but also acquire attidtudes and skills that help them become active contributing members of their society
random assignment
an unbiased procedure for assigning participant to treatment groups, such as drawing numbers out of a hat, flipping a coin . Increases chance of having that participants characteristics equally distributed across treatment conditions in an experimemnt
the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development
sensitive period
a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. Development can occur later, but it is harder to induce.
social learning theory
a theory that emphasizes the role of modeling, or obersevational learning, in the development of behavior. its most recent revision stresses the importance of thinking in social learning and is called social-cognitive theory
sociocultural theory
vygotsky's theory in which children are assumed to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a communities culture through cooperative dialogues with more knowlegable members of society
a qualitative change in thinking, feeli9ng, and behaving that characterizes a specific period of development
structured interview
a method in which each participant is asked the same questions in the same way
structured observation
a method in which the investigator sets up a situation that evokes the behavior of interest and observes it in a laboratory.
tabula rasa
locke's view of child as a "blank slate" whose character is shaped by experience
an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior
behavioral genetics
a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in humans traits and abilities
the tendency of hereditary to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
collectivist societys
societies in which people define themselves as part of a group and stress group over individuals goals.
concordance rate
the percentage of instances in which both members of a twin pair show a trait when it is present in one pair member. used to study the contribution of hereditary to emotional and behavioral disorders that can be judged as either present or absent
development of te individual resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between hereditary and all levels of the environment
extended family household
a household in which parent and child live with one or more adult relatives
genetic-environmental correlation
the idea that hereditary influences the environments to which individuals are exposed
heritability estimate
a statistic that measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
individualitic societys
societies in which people think of themselves as seperate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
kinship studies
studies comparing the characteristics of family members to determine the important of hereditary in complex human characteristics
a type of genetic-environmental correlation in which individuals actively chose environments that compliment their heredity
public policies
laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions
range of reaction
each persons unique, genetically determined response to range of environmental conditions
socioeconomic status
a measure of a families social position and economic well being that combines three interrelated, but not completely overlapping, variables: (1) years of education and (2) the prestige of and skill required by one's job, both of which measured economic status, and (3) income, which measures economic status
a group of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
a viral infection that destroys the immune system and is spread through transfer of body fluids from one person to another. it can be transmitted prenatally.
age of viability
the age at which the fetus can fetus can first survive if born early. orrcurs sometime 22 and 26 weeks.
the inner membrane that forms a protective covering around the prenatal organism
the zygote 4 days after fertilization, when the tiny mass of cells forms a hollow, fluid filled ball
the outer membrane that forms a protective covering around the prenatal organism. It sends out tiny, fingerlike villi, fro, which the placenta begins to develop
the prenatal organism from 2 to 8 weeks after conception, during which time the foundations of all body structures are internal organs are laid down
embryonic disk
a small cluster of cells on the inside of the blastocyst, from which the new organism will develop
fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
the condition of children who display some but not all defects of fetal alcohol syndrome. usually their mothers drank during pregnancy just in smaller quantities
fetal alcohol syndom (FAS)
a set of defects that results when women consume large amounts of alcohol during their pregnancy. inclued mental retardation, slow physical growth, and facial abnormalities
the prenatal organism from the the third month to the end of the pregnancy, during which time completion of body structures and dramatic growth in size take place
attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine lining 7 to 9 days after fertilization
a white, downy hair that covers the entire body of the fetus, helping the vernix to stick to the skin
neural tube
the primitive spinal cord that develops from the ectoderm, the top of which swells to form the brain during the period of the embryo
the organ that seperates the mothers bloodstream from the embryos or fetal bloodstream but permits exchange of nutrients and waste products
RH factor incompatibility
a condition that arises when the RH protein, present in the fetus' blood but not in the mothers, causes the mother to build up a antibodies. If these return to the fetus' system, the destroyed red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply and to organs and tissues
three day german measles. cause a wide variety of prenatal abnormalities, especially whenh it strikes during the embryonic period
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
a sedative widely available in europe, canada and south america in the 1960's. when taken by women between 4th and 6th weeks after conception, produced gross deformities of the embryos arms and legs
all illness of the last half of pregnancy, in which the mothers blood pressure increases sharply and her hands, face and feet swell. If untreated it can cause convulsions in the mother and death of the fetus
a paraitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked meat or by coming in contact with infected cats feces. During the 1st trimester it can lead to eye and brain damage
three equal time periods in pre-natal development, each one lasting 3 months
the thin outer ring of cells of the lastocyst, which will become the structures that provide protective covering and nourishment to the new organism
umbilical cord
the long cord connecting the prenatal organism to the placenta, it delivers nutrients and removes waste
a white, cheese-like substance that covers the fetus and prevents skin from chapping due to constant exposure to amniotic fluid
parents feelings of affection and concern for the newborn baby
neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS)
a test developed to assess the behavior of an infant during the newborn period
non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep
a "regular" sleep state in which the body is quiet and heart rate, breathing, brain wave activity are slow and regular.
postpartum depression
feelings of sadness and withdrawal that appear shortly after childbirth and that continue for weeks or months
rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep
An "irregular" sleep state in which brain-wave activity is similar to that of the waking state. eyes dart beneath the lids; heart rate, blood pressure and breathing are all uneven, and slight body movements occur.
an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
rooming in
an arrangement in which the newborn baby stays in the mothers hospital room all or most of the time
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
the unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant younger than 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough explanation
visual acuity
fineness of visual discrimination
the action possibilities that a situation offers an organism with certian motor capabilities. Discovering affordances plays a major role in perceptual differentiation
brain plasticity
the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize.
cephalocaudal trend
An organized pattern of physical growth and motor control that procceds from head to tail
cerebral cortex
the largest, most complex structure of the human brain, and the one responsible for the highly developed intelligence of the human species. Surrounds the rest of the brain, much like a half-shelled walnut.
classical conditioning
a form of learning that involving associating a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus that, through pairing with an unconditional stimulus (UCS), leads to a new response (CR)
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus that, through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), leads to a new response (CR).
contrast sensitivity
a general principle accounting for early pattern preferences, which states that if babies can detect a difference in contrast between two or more patterns, they will prefer the one with more contrast
differentiation theory
the view that perceptual development involves the detection of increasingly fine grained, invariant features in the environment
dynamic systems theory of motor development
a theory that views new motor skills as reorganizations of previously mastered skills that lead to more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment
growth centers in the bones where new cartilidge cells are produced and gradually harden
experience-dependent brain growth
new growth and refinement of brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across inividuals and cultures. Follows experience-expectant brain growth
experience-expectant brain growth
the young brains rapidly developing organgaization, which depends on ordinary experiences - opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment. Provides the foundation for experience-dependent brain growth
six soft spots that seperate the bones of the skull at birth
glial cells
cells that are responsible for myliniation
a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetative stimulus
learning by copying the behavior of another person. Also called modeling or observational learning
intermodal perception
perception that combines stimululation from more than one sensory system at a time
invariant features
in differentiation theory of perceptual development, features that remain stable in a constantly changing perceptual world.
a disease that is caused by a diet low in protein and that usually appears after weaning, between 1 and 3 years of age. Symptoms include an enlarged belly, swollen feet, hair loss, skin rash, and irritable, listless behavior
specialization of functions in the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
a disease usually appearing in the first year of life that is caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. Leads to a wasted body condition
a process in which neural fibers are coated with an insulating fatty sheath (called myelin) that improves the efficiency of message transfer
nerve cells that store and transmit information
nonorganic failure to thrive
a growth disorder usually present by 18 months of age that is caused by lack of affection and stimulation
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which a spontaneous behavior is followed by a stimulus that changes the probability that the behavior occured.
pincer grasp
the well coordinated grasp emerging at the end of the first year, involving thumb and finger opposition
the poorly coordinated, primitive reaching movements of newborn babies
proximodistal trend
an organization pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from the center of the body outward
in operant condition, a stimulus (removal of a desirable one or presentation of an un-pleasant one) that decreases the occurrence of a response
following habituation, an increase in responsiveness to a new stimulus
in operant conditioning, a stimulus that increases the occurence of a response
shape constancy
perception of an objects size as the same, despite changes in the size of its retinal image
size constancy
perception of an objects size as the same, despite changes in the size of its retinal image
skeletal age
an estimate of physical maturity based on development of the bones of the body
the gap between neurons, acorss which chemical messages are sent
synaptic pruning
loss of connective fibers by seldom stimulated neurons, thereby returning them to an un-committed state so they can support the development of future skills
ulnar grasp
the clumsy grasp of the young infant, in which the fingers close against the palm
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, a reflexive response that is produced by an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
A not B search error
the error made by 8-12 months old after an object is moved from hiding place A, to hiding place B. Infants in Piaget's substage 4 search for it only in the first hiding place
that part of adaption in which new schemes are created and old ones adjusted to produce a better fit with the environment
in piaget's theory, the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment. Made up of two processes, assimilation and accomodation
that part of adaption in which the external world is interpreted in terms of current schemes
autobiographical memory
representations of special, one time events that are long lasting because the are imbued with personal meaning
repeating of consonant-vowel combinations in long strings, beginning around 4 months of age
broca's area
a language structure located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebreal cortex that controls language and production
central executive
in information processing, the conscious part of working memory that directs the flow of information through the mental system by deciding what to attend to, coordinating incoming information with information already in the system, and selecting, applying, and monitoring stages
child-directed speech
a form of language adults use to speak to young children that consists of short senstences with high pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts
circular reaction
in piaget's theory, a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity
in language development, the words and word combinations that children understand
pleasant vowel-like noises made by infants, beginning around 2 months of age
core knowledge perspective
a perspective that states tht infants are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought, each of which permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefor supports early, rapid development of certian aspects of development
deferred imitation
the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
developmental quotient or DQ
a score on an infant intelligence test, based primarily on perceptual and motor responses. computed in the same manor as an IQ
developmentally appropriate practice
standards devised by the National association for the education of young children that specify program characteristics that meet the developmental and individual needs of young children of varying ages, based on both current research and the reseach and consenus of experts
expressive style
a style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to talk about the feelings and needs of themselves and other people. Initial vocabulary emphasizes social formulas and pronouns
functional play
a type of play involving pleasurable motor activity with or without objects. enables infants and toddlers to practice sensorimotor schemes
home observation for measurement of the environment (HOME)
a checklist for gathering information about the quality of childrens home lives through observation and parental interview
intelligent quotient or IQ
a score that reflects an individuals performance on an intelligence test compared with the performances of other individuals of the same age
intentional, goal directed behavior
a sequence of actions in which schemes are deliberatly combined to solve a problem
joint attention
a state in which the child and the cargiver attent to the same object or event and the caregiver offers verbal information. Supports language development
language acquisition device (LAD)
in chomsky's theory, a biologcally based innate system for picking up language that permits children, no matter which language they hear, to speak in a rule oriented fashion as soon as they have learned enough words
long-term memory
in information processing, the part of the mental system that contains our permanent knowledge base
make-believe play
a type of play in which children pretend, acting out everyday imaginary activities
mental representation
internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate
mental strategies
in information processing, procedures that operate on and transform information, thereby increasing the efficiency and flexibility of thinking and the chances that information will be retained
object permanence
the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight
in piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. In information processing, the memory strategy of grouping related terms
an early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too broadly - that is, to a wider collection fo objects and events than is appropriate.
in language development, the words and words combinations that children use.
the type of memory that involves remembering something in the absense of perceptual support
the simplest form of memory, which involves noticing whether a new experience is identical or similar to a previous one
referential style
a style of early language learning in which toddlers use language mainly to label objects.
in piaget's theory, a specific structure, or organized way of making sense of experience, that changes with age
sensorimotor stage
piaget's first stage, during which toddlers "think" with their hands, eyes, ears and other sensorimotor equipment. SPans the first 2 years of life
sensory register
in information processing, that part of the mental system in which sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly before they decay or are transferred to working or short term memory
telegraphic speech
toddlers two word utterances that, like a telegram, leave out smaller and less important words
an early vocabulary error in which a rold is applied too narrowly, to a smaller number of objects and events than is appropriate
violation of expectation method
a method in which researchers habituate infants to a physical event and then determine whether they recover responsiveness to (look longer at) a possible event (a variation of the first event that conforms to physical laws) or an impossible event (a variation that violates physical laws). Recovery to the impossible event suggests awareness of that aspect of physical reality.
wernicke's area
a language structure located in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for interpreting language
working, or short term memory
in information processing, the part of the mental system where we actively "work" on a limited amount of information, applying mental strategies to ensure that it will be retained
zone of proximal development
in vygotsky's theory, a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can accomplish with the help of more skilled partners
the strong, affectional tie that humans feel toward special people in their lives
attachment q-sort
an efficient method for asssesing the quality of the attachment bond, in which
autonomy vs shame and doubt
in eriksons theory, the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved positively if parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices
avoidant attachment
the quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who usually are not distressed by parental seperation and who avoid the parent when she returns.
basic emotions
emotions that can be directly inferred from facial expressions, such as happiness, interest, suprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust.
basic trust vs mistrust
in eriksons theory, the psychological conflict of infancy, which is resolved positively if caregiving, especially during feeding, is sympathetic and loving
voluntary obedience to adult requests and commands
difficult child
a child whose temperament is characterized by irregular daily routines, slow acceptance of new experiences, and negative and intense reactions.
disorganized/disoriented attachment
the quality of insecure attachment characteristizing infants who respond in a confused, contradictory fashion when reunited with the parent.
easy child
a child whose temperament is characterized by establishment of regular routines in infancy, general cheerfulness, and easy adaption to new experiences
emotional self regulation
stategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
the abilit to understand anothers emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way
ethological theory of attachment
a theory, formulated by bowlby, that views the infants emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promoted survival
goodness of fit model
thomas and chess's model, which states that an effective match, or "good fit", between child rearing and a childs temperament leads to more adaptive functioning, whereas a "poor fit" results in adjustment problems
inhibited, or shy child
a child whose temperament is characterized by negative reaction to and withdrawal from novel stimuli. resembles slow to warm up child.
interactional synchrony
a sensitively tuned "emotional dance" in which the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well time, rhythmic, appropriate fashion and both partners match emtotional states, especially the positive ones
internal working model
a set of expectations derived from early caregiving experiences concerning the availability of attachment figures, their likelihood of providing support during times of stress, and the self's interaction with those figures. Becomes a model, or guide, for all future close relationships
a sense of self as agent, who is separate from the surrounding world and can control its own thoughts and actions.
a sense of self as an object of knowledge and evalutation. consists of all qualities that make the self unique, including physical characteristics, possesions, attitudes, beliefs, and personality traits
resistant attachment
the quality of insecure attachment characterizeding infants who remain close to the parent before departure, are usually distressed when she leaves, and mix clinginess with angry, resistive behavior when she returns.
secure attachment
the quality of attachment characterizing infants who are distressed by parental separation but are easily comforted by the parent when she returns
secure base
the infants use of the familiar caregiver as a point from which to explore the environment and to return to for emotional support
self conscious emotions
emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self. ex shame, guilt, envy, pride.
self control
the capacity to resist am impulse to engage in socially disapproved behavior
sensitive caregiving
caregiving involving prompt, consistent, and appropraite responding to infant signals
seperation anxiety
an infant's distressed reaction to the departure of the familiar caregiver
slow to warm up child
a child whose temperament is characterized by inactivity, mild, low key reactions to environmental stimuli, negative mood, and slow adjustment when faced with new experiences
social referencing
relying on a trusted persons emotional reaction to decide how to respond in an uncertain situation
social smile
the smile evoked by the stimulus of the human face. first appears between 6 and 10 weeks
strange situation
a procedure that takes the baby through 8 short episodes, in which brief seperations from, and reunions with the caregiver occur in an unfamiliar playroom. asseses quality of attachment bond
stranger anxiety
the infants expresssion of fear in response to unfamiliar adults. appears in many babies after 6 months of age
stable individual differences in the quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional self regulation
uninhibited, or sociable child
a child whose temperament is characterized by positive emotional reaction and approach to novel stimuli.
a brain structure that aids in balance and control of body movement
corpus callosum
the large bundle of fibers that connects the two hemispeheres of the brain
dominant cerebral hemisphere
the hemisphere of the brain responsible for skilled motor action. The left hemisphere is dominant in right handed individuals. In left handed individuals, the right hemisphere may be dominant, or motor and language skills may be shared between the hemispheres
general growth curve
a curve that represents overall changes in body size - rapid growth during infancy, slower gains in early and middle childhood, and rapid growth during adolescence
growth hormone
a pituitary hormone that affects the development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals
pituitary gland
a gland located near the base of the brain that releases hormones affecting physical growth
psychosocial dwarfism
a growth disorder observed between 2 and 15 years of age. Characterized by very short stature, decreased GH secretion, immature skeletal age, and serious adjustment problems, which help distinguish psychosocial dwarfism from normal shortness. Caused by emotional deprevation.
reticular formation
a brain structure that maintains alertness and consciousness
thyroid-stimulating hormone
a pituitary hormone that simulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine, which is necessary for normal brain development and body growth.
aboriginal head start
a canadian federal program that provides first nations, inuit, and metis children younger than age 6 with preschool education and nutritional and health services and that encourages parent involvement in program planning and childrens learning
academic programs
educational programs in which teachers structure young childrens learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and other academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill.
animistic thinking
the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such as thoughts, wishes, feelings and intentions
a principle stating that the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in the set
the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect other important feautres
child-centered programs
educational programs in which teachers provide activities from which young children select, and most of the day is devoted to play.
the understanding that certain characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
dual representation
viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
the inability to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from ones own
emergent literacy
young children's active efforts to contruct literacy knowledge through informal experiences
episodic memory
memory for everday experiences
Adult responses that elaborate on a child's utterance, increasing its complexity
fast mapping
connecting a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter
guided participation
a concept that calls attention to adult and child contributions to a cooperative dialogue without specifying the precise features of communication, thereby allowing for variations across situations and cultures
heirarchical classification
the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
the process whereby two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding
the inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
mental strategies
in information processing, procedures that operate on and transform information, thereby increasing the efficiacy and flexibility of thinking and the chances information will be maintained
thinking about thought; awareness of mental activities
mutual exclusivity bias
in the early phase of vocabulary growth, childrens assumptions that words refer entirely seperate (non overlapping) categories
mental representations of actions that obey logical rules
a principle specifying order (more-than and less-than) relationships between quantities
overlapping-waves theory
a theory of problem solving, which states that when given challenging problems, children generate a variety of stategies and gradually selec those that result rapid, accurate situations, yielding an overlapping-waves pattern of development
application of regular grammatical rules to words that are exceptions
phonological awareness
the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language, as indicated by sensitivity to changes in sounds within words, to rhyming, and to incorrect pronunciation. A strong predictor of emergent literacy during early childhood and of later reading and spelling achievement.
thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time aand allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal
the practical, social side of language that is concerned with how to engage in effective and appropriate communication with others
preoperational stage
piaget's second stage, in which rapid growth representation takes place but thought is not yet logical. extends from 2 to 7 years
private speech
self-directed speech that children use to plan and guide their own behavior
project head start
the largest federally funded program in the united states, which provides low income children with a year or two of preschool education, along with nutritional and medical services, and which encourages parent involvement in childrens development
adult responses that restructures children's incorrect sppech into a more appropriate form
a changing quality of social support over the course of a teaching session, in which the adult adjusts the assistant provided to fit the child's current level of performance. As competence increases, the adult gradually and sensitively withdraws support, turning over responsibility to the child
general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. A basic means through which children organize and inerpret repeated events
semantic bootstrapping
figuring out grammatical rules by relying on word meanings
sociodramatic play
the make believe play with others that is under way by age 2.5
syntactic bootstrapping
figuring out word meanings by observing how words are used in the structure of sentences
a type of gender identity in which the person scores high on both traditionally feminine personality characteristics
associative play
a form of true social participation, in which children are engaged in separate activities but interact by exchanging toys and commenting on one anothers behavior.
authoritarian child rearing style
a child rearing style that is low in acceptance and involvement, is high in coercive control, and restricts rather than grants autonomy
authoritative child rearing style
a child rearing style that is high in acceptance and involvement, emphasizes firm control with explanations, and includes gradual, appropriate autonomy granting
child-rearing styles
combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduirng child rearing climate.
cooperative play
a form of true social participation, in which children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme or working on the same project.
gender constancy
the understanding that sex remains the same even if clothing, hairstyle and play activities change
gender identity
an image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
gender schema theory
an information processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive developmental features to explain how environmental pressures and children's cognitions together shape gender-role development
gender typing
the process of developing gender roles, or gender-linked preferences and behaviors valued by the larger society
hostile agression
aggression intended to harm another person
a type of discipline in which the effects of the childs misbehavior on others are communicated to the child
initiative vs guilt
in eriksons theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively though play experiences that foster a healthier sense of initiative and through the development of a super ego, or conscience, that is not overly strict and guilt ridden
instrumental aggression
aggression aimed at obtaining an object, privilidge, or space with no deliberate intent to harm another person.
nonsocial activity
unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play.
overt aggression
a form of hostile aggression that harms others through physical injury or the threat of such injury - for example hitting kicking or threatening to beat up a peer
parallel play
a form of limited social participation in which the child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
permissive child rearing style
a child rearing style that is high in acceptance but overindulgent or inattentive, low in control, and lenient rather than appropriate in autonomy granting
prosocial or altruistic behavior
actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
relational aggression
a form of hostile aggression that damages anothers peer realtionships, as in social exclusion or rumor spreading.
self concept
the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is
self esteem
the aspect of self concept that involves judgments about ones own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements
social problem solving
resolving social conflics in ways that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self. Involved noticing and accurately interpreting social cues, formulating goals that enhance relationships, generating and evaluating problem solving strategies, and enacting a response.
feelings of concern or sorrow for anothers plight
time out
a form of mild punishment in which children are removed from the immediate setting until they are ready to act appropriately
uninvolved child rearing style
a child rearing style that combines low and acceptance and involvement with little control and effort to grant auntonomy. Reflects minimal commitment to parenting.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
a childhood disorder involving inattentiveness, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity. Often leads to academic failure and social problems
basic skills approach
an approach to beginning reading instruction that emphasizes training in phonics - the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds - and simplified reading materials.
cognitive inhibition
the ability to resist interference from internal and external distracting stimuli, thereby ensuring that working memory is not cluttered with irrelevant information
cognitive maps
mental representations of familiar, large scale spaces, such as school or neighborhood.
cognitive self regulation
the process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
community of learners
a educational approach inspired by vygotsky's theory in which teachers guide the overall process of learning, but otherwise no distinction is made between adult and child contributors. All participate in joint endeavors and have the authority to define and resolve problems
concrete operational stage
piagets third stage, during which thought is logical, flexible, and organized in its application to concrete information.
constructivist classroom
a classroom that encourages students to contruct their own knowledge, though richly equipped learning centers, small groups and individuals solving problems they choose themselves, and a teacher who guides and supports in response to childrens needs. Studens are evaluated by considering their progress in realtion to their own prior development. Often grounded in Piaget's theory.
control deficiency
the inability to execute a mental strategy consistently
convergent thinking
the generation of a single correct answer to a problem. The type of cognition emphasized on intelligence tests.
cooperative learning
collaboration on a task by a small group of students who resolve differences of opinion, share responsibility, consider one another's ideas, and work toward common goals
the ability to produce work that is original yet approriate - something that others have not thought of but that is useful in some way.
the ability to focus on several aspects of a problem at once and relate them.
divergent thinking
the generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task of problem.
dynamic assessment
an approach to testing consistent with vygotskys zone of proximal development, in which an adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support.
educational self fulfilling prohecy
the idea that children may adopt teachers positive or negative attitudes towards them and start to live up to these views
effective strategy use
consistent use of a mental strategy that leads to improvement in perfomance
the memory strategy of creative a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that are not members of the same catagory
FLYNN effect
the steady increase in IQ that has occured from one generation to the next
full inclusion
placement of pupils with learning difficulties in regular classrooms for the entire school day
displaying exceptional intellectual strengths. Includes high IQ, creativity and talent
horizontal decalage
development within a piagetian stage. gradual mastery of logical concepts during the concrete operational stage is an example
learning disabilities
specific learning disorders that lead children to achieve poorly in school, despite an average or above average IQ. believed due to faulty brain functioning
placement of pupils with learnign disorders in regular classrooms for part of the school day
metalinguistic awareness
the ability to think about language as a system
in piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. In information processing, the memory strategy of grouping related items
production deficiency
the failure to produce a mental strategy when it could be helpful
reciprocal teaching
a teaching method based on vygotskys thepry in which a teacher and two to four students form a cooperative group. Dialogues occur that create a zone of proximal development in which reading comprehension improves
the memory strategy or repeating information
the ability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point
the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
social contructivist classroom
a classroom in which children participate in a wider range or challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings. As children appropriate (take for themselves) the knowledge and strategies generated from working together, they advance in cognitive and social development and become competent, contributing members of their cultural community.
stereotype threat
the fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype, which can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance
outstanding performance in a particular field
theory of multiple intelligences
gardner's theory, which proposes at least eight independent intelligences on the basis of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range or culturally valued activities
traditional classroom
an elementary school classroom based on the educational philosophy that children are passive learners who acquire information presented by teachers. children's process is evaluated on the basis of how well they keep up with a uniform set of standards for all students in their grade.
transitive inference
the ability to seriate - or order items along a quantitative dimension - mentally
triarchic theory pf successful intelligence
sternbergs theory, which differentiates three broad, interacting intelligences: (1) analytical intelligence (information processing skills) (2) creative intelligence (capacity to solve novel problems) (3) and practical intelligence (application of intellectual skills in everday situations). Intelligent behavior involves balancing all three to achieve success in life, according to ones personal goals and the requirements on ones cultural community
utilization deficiency
the inability to improve performance even with consistent use of a mental strategy.
whole language approach
an approach to beginning reading instruction that parallels childrens natural language learning and uses reading materials that are whole and meaningful
attribution training
an intervention that encourages learned helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort
common, everday explanations for the causes of behavior
blended or reconstituted family
a family structure resulting from cohabitation or remarraige that includes parent child and step relatives
distributive justice
beliefs about how to divide material goods fairly
a transitional form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while permitting children to be in charge or moment by moment decision making
divorce mediation
a series of meetings between divorcing adults and a trained professional aimed at reducing family conflict, including legal battles over property division and child custody
emotion centered coping
an approach to coping with stress that is internal, private and aimed at controlling negative emotion when little can be done about an outcome
industy vs inferiority
in eriksons theory, the psychological conflict of middle childhood, which is resolved positively when experiences lead children to develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks
joint custody
a child custody arrangement following divorce in which the court grants both parents equal say in important decisions about the childs upbringing
learned helplessness
attributions that credit success to luck and failure to low ability. Leads to anxious loss of control in the face of challenging tasks.
mastery oriented attributions
attributions that credit success to high ability and failure to insufficient effort. Lead to high self esteem and a willingness to approach challenging tasks
perspective taking
the capacity to imagine what other people are thinking and feeling
an intense, unmanageable fear that leads to persistent avoidance of the feared situation
problem centered coping
an approach to coping with stress in which the individual appraised the situation as changeable, indentifies the difficulty, and decides what to do about it
self care children
children who look after themselves during the after school hours
social comparisons
judgements of appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others
sociometric techniques
self report measures that assess peer acceptance by asking peers to evaluate one anothers likeability
controversial children
children who get a large number of positive and negative votes on sociometric measures or peer acceptance
neglected children
children who are seldomn mentioned, either positively or negatively on sociometric measures of peer acceptance
peer acceptance
Peer acceptance refers to likeability – the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of age mates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner.
peer group
collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers.
peer victimization
a destructive form of peer interaction in which certain children become frequent targets of verbal and physical attacks or other forms of abuse.
popular children
positive votes on sociometric measures of peer acceptance
popular antisocial children
consists largely of “tough boys” or athletically skilled, but poor students.
popular prosocial children
combine academic and social confidence
rejected children
activelt disliked and get many negative votes on sociometric measures of peer acceptance
rejected aggressive children
show high rates of conflict, aggression, and hyper active, inattentive, and impulsive behavior.
rejective withdrawn children
passive and socially awkward
the transition between childhood and emerging adulthood
adolescent initiation ceremony
a ritual, or rite of passafe, announcing to the community that a young person is making the transition into adolescence or full adulthood
anorexia nervose
an eating disorder in which individuals (usually females) starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat and an extremely distorted body image
autonomous morality
piagets second stage of moral development in which children view rules as flexible, socially agreed on principles that can be revised when there is a need to do so. Begins around age 10
at adolescence, a sense of oneself as a separate, self governing individual. Involved relying on oneself and less on parents for direction and guidance and engaging in careful, well reasoned decision making
bicultural identity
the identity constructed by adolescents who explore and adopt values from both their subculture and the dominant culture
body image
conception of and attitude toward ones physical appearance
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder in which individuals (usually females) engage in strict dieting and excessive exercising accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives
a small group of about fivr to seven members who are good friends and therefore tend to resemble one another in family background, attitudes and values
conventional level
kohlberg's second level of moral development in which moral understanding is based on conforming to social rules to ensure positive human relationships and societal order
a large, loosely organized group consisiting of several cliques. Membership is based on reputation and stereotype
ethnic identity
an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of ethnic group membership and attitudes and feelings associated with that membership
fantasy period
a period of vocational development in which young children fantasize about career options through make believe play. Spans early and middle childhood
formal operational stage
piagets final stage in which adolescents develop the capacity for abstract, scientific thinking. Begins around eleven years of age
gender itensification
increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior. Occurs in early adolescence
growth spurt
rapid gain in height and weight during adolescence
heteronomous morality
piagets first stage of moral development, in which children view moral rules as permanent features of the external world that are handed down by authorities, require strict obedience, and cannot be change. Extends from about 5 to 10 years
hypothetico-deductive reasoning
a formal operational problem solving straegy, in which adolescents begin with a deneral theory of all possible factors that could affect an outcome and deduce from that theory specific hypothesis, which they test in an orderly fashion
a well organized conception of the self that defines who one is, what one values, and what directions one wants to persue in life.
identity achievement
the identity status of individuals who have explored and committed themselves to self chosen values and goals.
identity diffusion
the identity status of individuals who lack both exploration and commitment to self chosen values and goals
identity foreclosure
the identity status of individuals who lack exploration and instead are committed to ready made values and goals that authority figures have chosen for them
identity moratorium
the identity status of individuals who are exploring, but are not yet committed to self chosen values and goals
identity versus identity confusion
in eriksons theory, the psychological conflict of adolescence which is resolved positively when adolescents attain an identity after successful outcomes of earlier stages
imaginary audience
adolescents belief that they are the focus of everyones elses attention and concern
logical necessity
a basic property of propositional thought, which specifies that the accuracy of conclusions drawn from premises rests on the rules of logic, not on real world confirmation
first menstration
personal fable
adolescents belief that they are special and unique. Leads them to conclude that others cannot possibly understand their thoughts and feelings. May promote a sense on invulnerability to danger
postconventional level
kohlbergs highest level of moral development, in which individuals define morality in terms of abstract priciples and values that apply to all situations and societies
preconventional level
kohlbergs first level or moral development in which moral understanding is based on rewards punishments and the power of authority figures
primary sexual characteristics
physical features that involve the reproductive organs directly (ovaries, utuerus and vagina, penis scrotum and testes)
propositional thought
a type of formal operational reasoning in which adolescents evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real world circumstances
biological changes at adolescence that lead to an adult size body and sexual maturity
realistic thought
the period of vocational development in which adolescents focus on a general career category and slightly later settle on a single occupation. Spans late adolescence and young adulthood
secondary sexual characteristics
visible features on the outside of the body that serve as signs of sexual maturity but do not involve the reproductive organs. (breasts, underarm and pubic hair)
First ejaculation
tentative period
a period of vocational development in which adolescents start to think about careers in more complex ways by weighing vocational options against interests, abilities, and values. Spans early and middle adolescence.